Glossary of science vocabulary terms

 

Earth Science and Geography

Atmosphere
The air that surrounds the earth is called.
Barometer Pressure
The force that air is pushing on you.
Bauxite
An earthy or clay like material that is the principle ore of aluminium.
Cirrus
Wispy thin clouds high in the sky.
Comet
A luminous gaseous body that travels around the sun.
Cumulus
Real thick fluffy clouds.
Equator
Imaginary line cuts the world in half east to west.
Fossils
Remains or traces of animals or plants of past geological ages.
Geologists
A person who studies rocks.
Hydrographer
A scientists who studies and charts the causes and movements of seas, lakes, rivers and other bodies of water.
Intelligent design
Begins with the assumption: nature is better explained by a designing mind. - a.k.a. God - than by natural adaptation and selection - evolution. The scientific problem with this is not that it is right or wrong. But, that it is an assumption and therefore, not susceptible to contradiction with testable evidence. Therefore, not scientific. It is a matter of faith, not a testable hypothesis, and therefore a religous issue, not a scientific issue.
Latitude
Imaginary lines running from east to west.
Longitude
Imaginary line running north to south.
Lunar Eclipse
This occurs when the Earth is between the moon and the sun and casts a shadow on Earth.
Meteors
its of rock or metal that speed thru the atmosphere from space. Due to their speed, friction develops and they burn out before reaching earth.
Mercury
The planet closest to the sun.
Meteor
Mass of stone or metal that comes toward the earth from outer-space.
Orbit
The path of the earth around the sun.
Planet
One of the heavenly bodies that moves around the sun.
Precipitation
Moisture from the clouds.
Pumice or Lava
Molten rock from a volcano.
Radio Telescope
Telescope using radio waves to observe and investigate the universe.
Reflecting Telescope
A telescope in which the light is reflected from a large mirror at the base of the telescope.
Refracting Telescope
A telescope with a convex lens at each end.
Relative Humidity
The amount of moisture in the air is this.
Revolves orbit
To move around in a curved path like the earth around the sun.
Rotate
To turn around on an axis.
Satellite
Small planet that resolves around a larger planet.
Seven Continents
Europe, Asia, Africa, North & South America, Antarctica, and Australia.
Solar Eclipse
The blocking out of sunlight by the moon.
Stratus
Gray clouds that cover the entire sky.
Telescope
An instrumental used for seeing great distances.
Weather
The change in the atmospheric conditions.

 

 

Process of Science, History of Science, and Other

Dr. Albert Einstein
E=MC2 was a formula first conceived by?
Plato-Socrates-Aristotle
Name famous Greek Philosopher
President Truman
The president who ordered the dropping of the Atomic Bomb on Japan.
1 kilogram
1000 grams = ________
Centimeter
Metric measurement of length that is about the width of a finger
Conclusion
An explanation for the results of an experiment or recommendations for further study.
Control
All good experiments need a
Equipment
Materials used for an experiment.
Microscope
What scientific instrument magnifies very small objects?
Model or Theory
Explanation based on thought, observation or reasoning.
Paleontologists
Scientists who study ancient life.
Procedure
The description of how an experiment is done is the
Results
Observation and measurements discovered from an experiment.

 

 

Life and Biological Science

8 and 6
The number of legs spiders and insects have.
Anatomical positions diagram veterinarian
 
Angiosperm
he class of plants where the seeds are inside a fruit and has a flower.
Algae
One celled plant like protist that makes its food.
Amphibians
This type of animal is born in the water, has gills and lives there until they grow lungs and move to land.
Arthropods
The phylum of insects.
Bark
The part of the trunk that protects the tree.
Birds
Class of animals that breathe with lungs, have feathers, wings, 4-chambered heart and warm blooded.
Bud-Cambium
The part of the stem where the growth takes place.
Chlorophyll
The chemical that plants use to make their food.
Cold-blooded
An animal whose body temperature is the same as the air surrounding.
Coleoptera
Order with beetles.
Conifer
Evergreen or one that doesn't lose its leaves in the winter
Cytoplasm
The translucent material of a cell not including the muscles.
Diptera
Order with flies.
Egg, larvae, pupa, adult
The four stages of complete metamorphosis.
Food
All plants make this.
Fungi
These organisms have no chlorophyll and cannot make their own food. They get their food from living or dead plant and animal materials. Some people would call them plants, but they are not.
Gills
The organ that fish breathe through.
Gymnosperm
he class of plants with no flowers or fruits.
H2O, CO2, light minerals chlorophyll
Name 4 materials needed for photosynthesis.
Habitat
The place where a plant or an animal lives.
Head, thorax, abdomen
Name the main parts of an insect.
Hempitera
The order of true bugs.
Human
This animal is Homo Sapien.
Hymenoptera
The order of bees wasps &ants.
Water
Where amphibians lay their eggs.
Invertebrate
An animal without a backbone.
Lepidoptera
The orders of butterflies and moths.
Mammals
THis class of animals gives birth to living young and feed them with milk, has a 4-chambered heart, breathes by lungs and has hair.
Microbiologists
A scientist who studies animal and plant life under a microscope.
Mint
This plant family has a square stem.
On Land
Where reptiles lay their eggs.
Orthoptera
The order of grasshoppers, crickets, praying montids, walking sticks and cockroaches.
Parasite
An organism that depends completely on another organism for its existence.
Peregrine Falcon
The fastest bird alive.
Petal
The pretty part of a flower.
Phloem
The part of a stem where the liquid goes down.
Photosynthesis
The process used by green plants to make sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light.
Phototropism
The act of a plant growing toward light.
Pisces or Fish
The class of animals with a bony skeleton, 2-chambered heart, breathe by gills, are cold-blooded, have scales and an air bladder.
Pith
Part of a tree where food is stored.
Plant & Animal
All living things can be divided into these two kingdoms.
Population
Number of a certain kind of organism living in a certain area.
Protoplasm
The living substance. or Name the liquid found in cells.
Reproduction
The maintenance of a species from generation to generation.
Reptiles
The class of animals that is cold blooded, rough, scaly, born on land, has lungs and a 3-4 chambered hearts.
Thorax-Abdomen
Two main parts of a spider.
Scales
Name the protective over lapping surface or fish.
Simple & Compound
Name 2 main types of leaves.
Peppermint Spearmint Catnip
Name three members of the mint family.
Spider or Scorpion
an animal in the class arachnida.
Stomata
Tiny openings usually on the underside of leaves thru which water vapor and air pass.
Trilobite
Ancient marine arthropod (insect) whose body was divided into 3 sections by furrows on the top section.
Vertebrate & Invertebrate
All animals can be classified into these two groups.

 

 

Health and Human Anatomy
A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U- V - Wxyz

A

Abdomen
The covering of the stomach area.
Adrenal
This gland produces a hormone (adrenalin) that increases heart rate and respiration in times of stress.
Anatomical positions diagram human
 
Antibodies
A substance made by the body to neutralize foreign protein(viruses & germs) in the blood stream.
Air Sac
Microscopic chamber in the lung tissue where oxygen enters the blood.
Amino Acids
Building blocks of protein.
Anus
The posterior opening of the digestive tract.
Aorta Arteries
The largest blood vessel in the body.
Appendix
Organ in your body that has no purpose at all.
Arteries
lood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Aurcicle or Atrium
The receiving chamber of the heart.
Axon
The part of the neuron through which impulses are carried.

B

Ball & Joint
A type of joint that permits rotation.
Bladder
Where the liquid wastes are stored.
Blood
The fluid that circulates in the circulatory system.
Bone Cell
The smallest living thing that is used for support.
Brain
The organ that controls body functions.
Bronchial Tube
The tube connecting the esophagus to the lungs.

C

Calcium
Gives strength to bones and teeth. Assists in blood clotting. Functions in normal muscle contraction and relaxation and normal nerve transmission.
Canines
Pointed teeth that grip and rip.
Capillaries
The blood vessels where food and oxygen are given to body tissues. Or the smallest vessels in the body that transport blood.
Carbohydrates
This nutrient serves the body as fuel. Most comes from sugar and starch.
Cell
Smallest living thing. or Smallest living thing in the body.
Cerebrum
The larger of the two chief parts of the brain. It receives messages from the senses & controls memory thinking and planning.
Cochlea
Part of the inner ear shaped like the coil of a snail shell.
Cerebellum
The smaller of the two parts of the brain. Controls the power of balancing.
Circulatory System
The system to transport substances throughout the body.
Cornea
A covering of transparent material over the eyeball which protects the eye and admits light.

D

Diaphragm
The muscle used to control breathing.
Digestion
The process of preparing food for absorption and assimilation.
Distal
Farthest from the reference point. From Latin distare, to be distant.
Dorsal
Backside of an organism or structure. Back, butt, calves, ... From Latin dorsum, back. Dorsal fin of a dolphin.

E

 
E-Vitamin
Protects vitamin A from destruction by oxidation. Promote healing.
Ears
The organ used for sensing sounds.
Ear-drum
A thin skin across the end of the outer ear that vibrate when air vibration strike it.
Endocrine System
The system in the body that makes chemicals to control long term changes.
The system that is the chemical regulator of the body.
Epidermis
The outer surface of the body.
Eyes
The organ used for sensing light.
Eyelashes
Hairs that protect the eye.
Esophagus
Tube that carries food pass the region of the heart and lungs to the stomach.
Excretory System
System that rids the body of waste.

F

Fats
A nutrient that is used by the body for long time energy.
Femur
The largest bone in the body.
Folic Acid
Helps prevent anemia. Aids in cell formation.
Food, oxygen, shelter, aesthetic value...
ame 4 important uses of plants.

G

Genes
Chemicals units of heredity that direct the development of all living things.
Germination
The process of a seed when it begins to become a plant.
Glucose
A kind of sugar formed in the process of photosynthesis.

H

Hemoglobin
A chemical that serves to carry oxygen to the tissues.
Hinge Joint
A type of joint that only allows one plane motion.
Hormone(s)
A secretion found in the blood stream which influences the activity of particular organs. or Chemical substances produced by the endocrine glands.

I

Iodine
Makes thyroxine, a hormone that regulate metabolic rate. Prevents (simple) goiter.
Inferior
Lower or located lower than another. From Latin inferus, low.
Iris
The colored part of the eye around the pupil. It regulates the amount of light that passes into the eye.
Iron
Helps to form hemoglobin, the red substance in blood that carries oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the cells. Prevents animus and increases resistance to infection.

J

Jugular
Main blood vessel that goes to the brain.

K

K-Vitamin
Maintains normal clotting function of the blood.
Kidney
An organ that filters liquid wastes from the blood.

L

Large Intestine or Colon
The area that finishes digestion and disposes of undigested residue.
Larynx
The voice organ located in the upper part of the windpipe. It contains the vocal chords.
Lateral
Located at the side. From Latin latus, side.
Lens
The part of the eye that collects the light and focuses it on the retina.
Ligaments
Connective tissue connects bone to bone.
Liver
This organ secretes file, stores sugar, synthesize protein, dispose of poisons and makes a substance necessary for red blood cells production that breaks down old red blood cells.
Living Cells
Viruses can only replicate in this.
Lungs
The organ that allows oxygen into the blood stream and removes carbon dioxide.
Lymphatic System
A system of delicate vessels that lead from spaces between tissue to veins in the heart.

M

Malnutrition
Condition of being poorly nourished.
Medial
Toward the middle. From Latin medius, middle.
Marrow
The place where red blood cells are made.
Minerals
A nutrient that helps regulate body tissues and is needed in very small amounts.
Molar
Pasterior teeth used for grinding.
Muscle Cell
The smallest living thing that expands and contracts.

N

Neuron
Nerve cell over which impulses pass.
Nerve Cell
The smallest living thing that receives and transmits impulses or messages. or The cells of the body which carry messages from one part of the body to another.
Nervous System
The system controls the body. or The system of nerves and nerve tissues in the body which controls the other system and organs in the body.
Niacin
Aids in utilization of energy, helps tissue respiration (cell oxygen use) promotes healthy skin, nerves, digestive tract and aids digestion.
Nose
The organ used for sensing smells.
Nutrient
A basic food substance needed by the body for growth, repair or energy.

O

Olfactory Nerve
Nerve that sends smell stimuli to the brain.
Optic nerve
The nerve that sends impulses from the eye to the brain.
Organ
A group of cells or tissues working together for a special purpose.

P

Pancreas
Pectoral
Muscles of the chest.
Pelvic
The hip bone.
Peristalsis
Rhythmic involuntary muscular contractions that help pass substances along a hollow organ.
Pipe to Lungs
Bronchus
Pituitary Gland
The gland that produces hormones and controls other glands. or The master gland whose hormones affect all other endocrine glands.
Plasma
Liquid part of the blood. or The clear fluid in the blood.
Platelets
Causes blood to clot.
Protein
The meat group is high in this nutrient and it is broken down into amino acids and used for energy.
Proximal
Nearest the reference point. From Latin proximus, nearest.
Pulmonary
Name of the blood vessel that goes to the lung.
Pupil
The black part of the eye.

R

Receptor
A free nerve ending used as a sense organ to receives and transforms stimuli into nerve impulses.
Rectum
The end and enlarged portion of the digestive tract.
Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes
The type of cell that carries oxygen to body tissues.
Reproduction
The maintenance of a species from generation to generation.
Respiratory System
System that supplies oxygen to the body.
Retina
The back of the eye. or The inner lining of the back of the eyeball.
Rods or Cones
The main kinds of retina cells.

S

Saliva
A fluid formed by glands in the month.
Salivary Glands
Where the saliva is secreted.
Semi-Circular Canals
Three curved tubes above the cochlea in the ear. They give the body its sense of balance.
Small Intestine
The principle area for the absorption of food.
Spinal Cord
The main thoroughfare for the nervous system.
Stirrup
One of the small bones in the middle ear.
Stomach
A pouch where food is stored and some digestion occurs.
Sugar Glucose
Sources of energy and starch is metabolized (burned) into this.
Superior
Upper or located higher than another. From Latin superus, upper and super, over.
Survive
Continue to live or exist.
Synapse
The connection of one nerve cell with another where impulses are transmitted.

T

Tear Duct
The tube with glands that carries fluid to the eye for washing it.
Thymus
This produces growth hormones.
Thyroid
The gland that regulate metabolism, growth, and sexual development. or The gland that regulates the pace of the body functions.
Tissue
A group of similar cells working together for a specific job.
Tongue
The organ used for taste and to manipulate food for chewing.

U

Urine
The liquid wastes collected in the kidneys.

V

Vaccine
A substance that causes an immune response by mimicing the disease so immune cells recognize it and stock pile immune cells. Not everyone responds to a specific vaccine, leaving somee vulnerable to infection.
Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart.
Ventral
Frontside of an organism or structure. chest, abdomen, knees, ... From Latin venter, belly.
Ventricles
Chambers where the blood leaves the heart.
Vertebrate
Separate back bones.
Vessel
A tubular structure that transmits fluids.
Vitamins
An organic substance essential in minute amounts for normal growth and body functions.
Vitamin A-Retinol
Assists formation and maintenance of soft smooth skin. Helps promote healthy eye tissues.
Vitamin B-Thiamin
Aids in utilization of energy. Promotes the utilization of carbohydrates and a normal appetite.
Vitamin B12
Helps prevent anemia. Helps enzymes and other biochemical systems function normally.
Vitamin B2-Riboflavin
Aids in utilization of energy. Functions in part in the production of energy within body cells and helps promote healthy skin, eyes and clear vision.
Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
Forms substances that hold body cells together thus helps strength blood vessels, hastens healing of wounds and bones and increases resistance to infection. or A vitamin that is found in high amounts in citrus fruits and is necessary for cell growth.
Vitamin D
Helps the body absorb calcium from the digestive tract and build calcium and phosphorus into bones.
Vitamin E
Protects Vitamin A from destruction by oxidation. Promote healing.
Vocal Cords
A pair of thin sheets of tissue whose vibrations cause sounds to be made. In human beings these are located in the larynx.

W x y z

Water
Is part of every cell and all body fluids. Regulates body temperature. Carries nutrients to the cells. Carries waste from the cells. Functions as the medium for chemical reactions.
Wave Lengths
The distance from the beginning of one wave to the beginning of the next wave.
White blood cells
A cell in the body that fights bacteria and helps remove foreign organisms and old or dead tissue cells from the body. or Cells that fight harmful organisms in the blood stream.
Xylem
The part of a stem in which the liquid goes up.
Zoo-Plankton
Tiny animals of the sea.

 

 

Mathematics

Average (mean)
When you add up five numbers and divide the total by 5 the result is this.
Mean is the the quotient of the sum of data points divided by the number of data points; the data point or one of the data points midway between a progression of data points.
Ellipse
Shapes that are more oval than round.
Geometry or Trigonometry
A branch of math dealing with the sides and angles of triangles.
Median
The mathematicsl term for the mid point in a series of numbers.
Median
The middle point or the average of the middle points of a sequence of data points arranged by value; the value at the midpoint of a frequency distribution such that there is an equal probability of falling above or below it.
Mode
The largest subgroup (subset) of similar data points with the same value among all data points (elements) and other subgroups(subsets) of the larger group (set) is called what? is the data point that occurs most frequently in a set of data.
Meter
A metric unit of measure about the length of a desk.
Gold
Which weighs more 2 cubic inch of gold or 2 cubic inch of aluminum?
Solid
A material which has a definite volume and a definite shape.

 

 

Physical science

Acids
A sour substance which in liquid form turns blue litmus paper red.
Amplifier
An instrument that increases the volume of something.
Amplitude
The distance a vibrating object moves from its position of rest.
Antennas
Long wires or a set of wires uses in radio for sending or receiving.
Atom
Small part of a molecule; The center of it is made up of protons & neutrons and electrons revolve around it.
Atomic Make-up or Spin of Electron
Magnetic Behavior depends on this.
Atomic Weight
That which is approximately equal to the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus is what
Attract
To draw near; to pull towards something.
Base
A chemical substance that unites with an acid to form a salt.
Chain Reaction
A reaction that makes more energy then it uses, as in the splitting of billions of atoms.
Chemical bond
The force holding the atoms of each molecule of a compound together.
Chemical Change
The rearrangement of the atoms of a molecule to form a new substance.
Circuit
The path that an electric current follows.
Circuit breaker Fuse
What is the weakest link in an electrical circuit.
Compass
A scientific device to measure direction.
Compound
A substance formed by the combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
Concave
Curving inward like the inside of a bowl.
Conduction, Convection & Radiation
Three ways heat energy changes or is transferred.
Conductor
Material through which an electric current will flow.
Convex
Curving outward or arched like the outside of a ball.
Current
A flowing movement; as in electricity.
E=MC2)
Einstein's famous equation.
Echo
The reflection of sound waves.
Electricity
Flow of Electrons
Electric Current
Moving a magnet near wire will cause what in the wire.
Electromagnetic
A piece of iron that becomes a magnet when an electric current flows through a wire wound around it.
Electromagnetic Waves
The waves sent out by a wire thru which a varying electric current has been sent.
Electron
The blurs of energy which revolve around the nucleus of an atom.
Element
What is a simple basic substance which is made up of just one thing? A pure substance made up of only one kind of atoms.
Energy
The power to do something; the amount of force that can be made to do work.
North Pole
Farthest point north in the world.
Nucleus
The center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons.
Objective Lens
The lens of a telescope at the end nearest the object.
Ocular
The lens a telescope at the end nearest the eye.
Opaque
Not letting light through.
Paper Chromatography
A process of separating compounds from a liquid mixture by allowing it to seep into absorbent paper.
Parallel cricuit
A circuit where each light will work alone.
Zero Gravity
Without Weight.
Field
The area of space around a magnet in which are its lines of force.
Fission
The splitting into parts; The splitting of atoms.
Focal length
The distance from the lens to the clear image of a distant object being examined.
Focus
The point at which a clear image of the object being examined is formed.
Formula
The numbers and symbols used to represent a compound.
Frequency
Speed at which a material vibrates.
Friction
Rubbing of one thing against another. A force that slows them and changes motion to heat.
Fusion
The joining of atoms.
Gas
Substance that has no definite shape or volume.
Geiger Counter
A device that measures radioactivity.
Generator
A machine which produces electric current by revolving coils of wire in a magnetic field
Gravity
Force that attracts all things to center of the earth.
Heat
The indirect measurement of the energy of the movement of atoms.
Infrared
The lower frequencies of solar spectrum invisible to the human eye and commonly called the heat rays.
Insulator
A material through which an electric current will not flow easily.
Isotopes
The different types of atoms of one element.
Kindling Temperature
Temperature that a substance will ignite.
Liquid
Substance that has a definite volume but no definite shape.
Litmus Paper or Ph paper
Treated paper used to test for acids and bases.
Loadstone or Lodestone
A magnetic stone.
Magnetic Field
The area around a magnet in which magnetic force can be detected.
Magnify
To make appear larger.
Mixture
Two or more substances put together in such a way that each keeps it s own properties.
Negative
The charge of aparticle that has an abundance of electrons.
An exposed photographic film.
Negative Charges
A particle tha thas more electrons than protons has this.
Neutral Substance
Substance that are neither acidic or basic.
Neutron
A particle that is neutral electrically and has slightly more mass than a proton.
North & South
When freely suspended a magnet aligns in this direction.
Physical change
A change in the shape, size or state of a substance.
Pitch
Highness or lowness of a sound.
Pole
The north and south end of a magnet, where most force is located.
Positive
The charge of a particle that has an abundance of protons.
Prism
A piece of glass with slanting sides; bends white light and separates it into different colors.
Radiation
Heat given off by something having energy.
The causes of a solar wind.
Radium
A radioactive element that has 88 atoms and glows in the dark.
Reflect
Throw back heat on light.
Reference Point
The point from which one gives directions or makes observations.
Refract
To bend light rays as in a prism.
Refraction
The blending of light as it passes from one medium to another.
Repel
Like poles of a magnet will do this.
Resistance
This slows electrons in an electric current and increases temperature.
Simple machines
Screw, inclined plane, pulley, wheel & axle, Lever
Series
A circuit where each light has its own complete circuit.
Spectroscope
An instrument used to analyze the different colors in light given off by a glowing object.
Spectrum
The band of colors produced when light is separated into its different frequencies such as a rainbow.
Stereophonic
That in which sound has the effect of coming from several different places.
Suspension
A liquid containing undissolved particles which do not settle.
Switch
Used to open and close an electric current.
Symbol
The letter or letters used to represent an element.
Tension
The stretch or strain of something.
Thermometer
An instrument for measuring the amount of heat.
Tone
A vocal or musical sound.
Translucent
A substance is called this when light can pass through it but objects beyond cannot be seen clearly. or Letting light through but not transparent.
Transparent
A substance is called this when light can pass through it and objects beyond it can be seen clearly.
Ultra Violent
The higher frequencies of the solar spectrum invisible to the human eye.
Uranium
An element used in making atomic energy; It has 92 protons and 143 neutrons.
Vibrate
To move back and forth very rapidly.
Volume
The fullness of tone a loud sound has much of this and a low sound has little.
1 525 ft/s
The speed of the rotation of Earth.
18.6 m/s
The speed of translation of the earth through space.
186 000 m/s
The speed of light

 

 

Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes
homeofbob.com & schoolofbob.com