Nutrition, Diet, & Exercise Activities
Activities to explore nutrition
Activity 1 - What affects a person's diet and nutritional choices?
Activity 2 - Nutritional and diet goals for good health
Activity 3 - What do I know about vitamins today?
Activity 4 - How much of one Vitamin did I eat yesterday?
Activity 5 - How were vitamins discovered?
Activity 6 - Lab summary
Activity 7 - Physical activity goals and plan
Activity 8 - Cross word puzzle for key words
Activity 9 - Nutrition review
- Affects on a person's diet and nutritional choices
- Nutrition information
- History of five vitamins in the Great Vitamin Mystery
- Physical activity and health
- Mental and emotional health key ideas
What affects a person's diet and nutritional choices? (Activity 1)
Purpose - To review the affects on a person's diet and nutritional choices and how companies advertise their products to influence how we spend our money.
- Review the list of affects on a person's diet and nutritional choices. If you can think of other variables add them to the list.
- Check out the resources below for examples of some affects.
- Think of other examples that affect peoples choices.
- Select your own ad or dining experience or select one from the resources below.
- Analyze the affects of the imagined dining situtation.
- Describe the affects as positive and negative influences that affect where you eat, what you eat, and how you feel about the experience.
- Fast food ads and reality... Comparison of actual fast food and what it looks like in an Ad.
- How to make a fast food Commercial display Watch a food artist show and explain her tricks for making fast food look good.
- Applebee's TV Ads View their short ad and the topics and content on their internet site and review how they use or don't use the Key Ideas that Affect a person's diet and nutritional choices to sell people on Applebee's.
- Memories or pictures of people eating: Sample 1, Sample 2, Sample 3,
Short description of meal and environment.
Affects as positive and negative influences
Nutritional and diet goals for good health (Activity 2)
Purpose - To describe how a good nutritional diet can help provide and maintain good health.
Directions: Review nutritional information and list ideas how a good nutritional diet can help provide and maintain good health in each area of good health. social, physical, and mental/ emotional health. Consider your ideas as a good beginning and review them over the next weeks to consider changes to make them more beneficial and achievable.
Nutritional and diet goals for good health
Mental/ emotional health
What do I know about vitamins today? (Activity 3)
Purpose - To describe what you know about vitamins.
Directions: Answer the following questions the best you can. This is a survey to know what you know now. Don't worry about what might be right or not.
1. List the kinds of vitamins you can remember in a minute or less
2. When do you think people learned about vitamins?
3. How do you think people found out about vitamins?
4. Name a vitamin and two foods that have high levels of the vitamin
5. Name another vitamin and two foods that have high levels of the vitamin
How much of one Vitamin did I eat yesterday? (Activity 4)
Purpose - To quantify the amount of one vitamin that was eaten in a daily diet or taken as a supplement for a day.
- Select a vitamin. See Nutrition information for vitamin list.
- List all foods you ate and vitamins you took yesterday.
- Use labels or a database to find the percentage of your selected vitamin is in each food you ate and vitamin you took. Suggested databases
- Mark the 100% chart with the amount for each food to summarize the percentage for your selected vitamin in all the foods you ate vitamins you took for your targeted vitamin.
Vitamins in my diet
Select a vitamin
List the foods you ate yesterday and write the percentage of the vitamin in each.
List any supplement you took and the percentage of your selected vitamin in it.
For each percent shade or color one square for each percent or one row for each 10%. If you fill the entire chart, that means you had 100% of the vitamin.
What did you discover?
What conclusions can you make?
How were vitamins discovered? (Activity 5)
Purpose - To describe how humans found out about vitamins.
Directions: Select one of five vitamins: A, B1, B3, C, or D. Use the information in the materials below to learn about the story of the vitamin you selected, summarize that story, and how it is important for healthy lives. Then share your wisdom with others.
Vitamin discoveries across time...
Vitamin I selected
Summarize its discovery story and how it is important for healthy lives.
Suggestions to include in your story.
- Describe the observed unhealthy conditions of the people.
- Describe the diet of the unhealthy people.
- Describe the addition to the diet of the more healthy people.
- Describe how the idea of vitamin was related to what was missing.
- Write a cause and effect explanation for the disease.
- Describe an explanation or model of what happens in a human body related to this vitamin.
Notes for your story
Who did you share your story with?
Notes form other stories: Vitamins A, B1, B3, C, or D
- Explain how the combination of several of these discoveries was historically important and lead to the idea of vitamins as something that was beyond one plant or specific food and related to multiple possible unhealthy conditions.
Lab Summary (Activity 6)
Purpose - To conduct and describe an investigation about nutrients or vitamins.
Directions: Select and conduct one of the investigations from the food investigation activities: calcium & bones, starch, milk, protein, minerals, fat, eggs & protein, acid, sugar, energy and describe your results and what youi learned.
Materials and directions
What I did...
Investigation I selected
Summarize my discovery
What I learned
What I would like to know more about...
Physical activity goals for good health (Activity 7)
Purpose - Describe a physical activity plan that will provide and maintain good health.
Directions: In your nutritional and diet goals for good health you included goals that relate to good physical health. In this activity you can review what you included and describe a physical activity plan that will help you achieve and maintain good health. See key ideas about physical activity, kinds of exercise, and conosiderations for a peronal activity plan.
Physical activity goals
Physical activity plan
Crossword Puzzle for Nutrition, Diet, & Exercise (Activity 8)
Nutrition Review (Activity 9)
Resources: Word bank and Key Ideas
Word Bank: Nutrition, Diet, & Exercise
Amino acids join together to make proteins
Anorexia nervosa is a mental and physical disorder characterized by loss of weight brought on by an unrealistic fear of weight gain, self-starvation, and conspicuous distortion of body image. Health is compromised and may be fatal. Latin definition means - nervous inability to eat.
Appetite is a desire or craving for food or water.
Binge eating is when people eat excessively and compulsively.
Blister a raised area on the skin filled with liquid. Usually caused by friction. Cover them and let them heal. Protect feet with well-fitting socks and shoes and hands with gloves.
Body image is a mental or visual image of what one's body is or should be like. It is sometimes idealized or misconceived in a mental disorder such as anorexia nervosa. See Dove videos referenced below Body image, media resources.
Bulimia nervosa is a mental and physical disorder characterized by consumption of large amounts of food (binge) and ridding of the food of calories (purge) by fasting, excessive exercise, vomiting, or using laxatives. The behavior often serves to reduce stress and relieve anxiety created by concern with weight and self-image. It is often accompanied by depression, is serious, and sometimes life-threatening.
Caffeine is a substance in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, kola nuts, and energy drinks. It has several effects on metabolism. Most common is stimulation of alertness and a boost of energy. For an average adult 400 mg of caffeine a day is thought safe by the Mayo Clinic, European Food Safety Authority, and other groups. However, too much caffeine can make a person jittery or shaky, stay awake or be unable to sleep, have headaches, dizziness, increased heart rate or abnormal heart rhythm, and become dehydrated. It is addictive and can cause withdrawal symptoms when not used.
Calorie is a unit used to measure the amount of energy in food. One calorie is the amount of heat energy it takes to increase the temperature of one gram of water one degree.
Carbohydrates are are sweet or starchy foods. Chemically they are sugars, starches, and cellulose in different combinations.
Celiac disease is intolerance to gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. Treatment is to avoid these and any product which includes them, pasta, bread, beer.
Cholesterol is a waxy fat like substance in blood. It is used to make cell walls, clotting, hormones, and vitamin D. Too much can cause heart disease.
Concussion is an injury to the brain usually caused by a violent blow or impact that results in loss of function, consciousness, and memory that can be temporary or sometimes prolonged. A concussion can cause blurry vision, dizziness, vomiting, confusion, brain damage, seizures, weakness on one side of the body, coma, and death. Rest and sleep to let the brain heal. Consult a doctor to establish when it's safe to return to full activity.
Creatine is an amino acid that helps release energy particularly for muscle contraction. Used to provide a burst of energy or strength and reduce fatigue. Side effects are cramps, nausea, and damage the heart, liver, and kidneys. In addition to improving athletic performance, creatine is prescribed for congestive heart failure (CHF), depression, bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease, muscle diseases, diseases of the nerves, gyrate atrophy, high cholesterol, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease), rheumatoid arthritis, McArdle’s disease, and muscular dystrophies.
Cross contamination is the process of passing microorganisms or other harmful substances from one food to another. Usually by touching raw food, with hands, other food, sponge, towel, cutting board, or utensil; then, without cleaning it, allowing it to touch another ready-to-eat food. For example, preparing a salad on the same surface where raw meat was placed.
Dates sell by, use by, fresh by are included on products at the discretion of the producer, and can vary widely in meaning.
Dietary supplements are a variety of amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and herbs taken as nutritional supplements to regular food.
Dislocated is when a bone moves from its normal position relative to a joint. Can be painful and miss shaped. Do not move the person and get medical help.
Eating disorder is any of various extreme or harmful eating behaviors that can cause severe illness or death. Such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia.
Energy drink is a beverage with stimulant drugs marked to provide enhanced mental and physical activity. The main ingredient is usually caffeine. They may or may not have carbonation, sugar, herbal extracts, B vitamins, and amino acids. For an average adult 400 mg of caffeine a day is thought safe by the Mayo Clinic, European Food Safety Authority, and other groups.
Exercise is any activity with physical effort that improves or maintains physical fitness. Exercise activities may be planned, repeated, and structured.
Fatty acids are used to make fats.
Fats are concentrated forms of energy. see also unsaturated, saturated, and trans fats.
Fat soluble vitamin are vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Food intolerance is a negative reaction to food that doesn't involve the immune system. For example, lactose intolerance.
Food labels include: free, none, insignificant amount, low, light, reduced, high, and so on. See explanations of these different meanings.
Fiber is a carbohydrate the body can’t digest or absorb.
Food additives are substances that are added to food to enhance it in a variety of ways. Taste better - adding sweeteners, salt, fat, texture... Look better - adding color... More nutrious - adding vitamins, adding fiber to increase fiber or to reduce fat...
Food allergies is a negative response by the immune system to a protein in certain foods. Most often peanuts, milk, eggs, soybeans, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish.
Fracture is a break or crack in a bone or cartilage. It can cause severe pain, swelling, bruising, or bleeding. Do not move the person and get medical help.
Herbal supplement is a substance obtained from a flowering plant whose stem isn't woody and whose growth usually ends in the fall (herb).
Hunger is the bodies response when it needs food.
Lactarian is a person whose diet includes plants (vegan) and dairy products.
Lactose intolerant is when people lack sufficient lactase, to metabilize lactose, causing bloating, gas, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea depending on the amount eaten.
Metabolism is the process in which energy is derived from food.
Minerals are elements found in food used by the body.
Muscle cramp is a sudden involuntary and sometimes painful contraction of muscles caused by overworked or dehydrated muscles. Stretching and rehydration can relieve cramps.
Nutrition is the process of a body taking in and using food.
Nutrient dense foods have a high ratio of nutrients to calories. More nutrients for each calorie. Carrots are more nutrient dense than a potato chip.
Organic are foods without chemicals: such as synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, nor contain any GMO's (genetically modified organisms) or subjected to some types of radiation.
Osteoporosis is when bones become porous, brittle, fragile, and can easily break as a result of not enough calcium.
Partially hydrogenated fats are currently considered the worst fats for our health and have been removed from many products.
Pasteurize is the process of heating a substance to kill or slow the growth of microorganisms that can cause disease or spoil food.
Performance enhancers are substances that improve athletic and other performance.
Physical activity is any movement that works your muscles and causes the body to use more energy than when it is resting.
Physical fitness is the state of being able to easily perform your occupation, sports, and generally go about your life without getting tired or altering your plans to reduce the physical activity.
Protein is the building blocks of the body. Your body uses about 20 amino acids, digested from your food and put back together as proteins to make all the cells in your body.
Saturated fats are mostly from animal or vegetable sources.
Sedentary is being inactive or seated resulting in little physical activity.
Steroids there are two types of steroids naturally in the body. Corticosteroids and androgenic/anabolic steroids. For additional information see them. Steroids are strong medicines and have side effects, which may include weakened bones and cataracts. Because of this, they are prescribed for short durations.
- Corticosteroids are made in the adrenal cortex located above the kidney. These hormones include aldosterone, which helps regulate sodium concentration in the body, and cortisol, which plays many roles in the body, including serving as part of the body's stress response system, and the bodies illness, injury, and immune response. Corticosteroids are used to: reduce inflammation, treat arthritis, asthma, autoimmune diseases such as lupus and multiple sclerosis, skin conditions such as eczema and rashes, and some kinds of cancer. See also steroids.
- Androgen steroids, are natural and synthetic hormones. The most renown androgen is testosterone made naturally in the testicles, ovaries, and adrenal cortex. Androgenic steroids, such as testosterone, is involved with the development of male sex characteristics. The anabolic part is involved in increasing the amount of body tissue by increasing protein production. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, helps regulate testosterone production and hormone secretion.
- Anabolic steroid is a synthetic derivative of testosterone available as a prescription for those in need of a supplement and available illegally by people who abuse them to help increase athletic performance and improve body appearance. There are serious and irreversible side effects that have resulted from unusually high levels of steroids. These include high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, liver damage, heart failure, acne, baldness, aggressive behavior, and violent behavior.
Strain is a stretched or pulled muscle that can range anywhere from a slightly stretched muscle to one that is torn apart. The strain can be in the muscle, or where the muscle attaches to a tendon, or can be the tendon or where the tendon attaches to the bone. They can result with muscle fatigue, overuse, or improper use of any muscle, but are most common in the back, neck, shoulder, and hamstring (a muscle in the top back of a leg). Mild-to-moderate strains are treated with ice, heat, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Severe strains or tears may require medical treatment.
Sprain is a stretched or torn ligament (ligaments connect bones or cartilage) at a joint that causes pain, swelling, or stiffness.
Super Tracker is a web site with an interactive guide to assist in healthy eating.
Tendonitis is inflammation of a tendon that can cause swelling, pain, or discomfort.
Trans fats include hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated fats created when liquid oils are turned into solid fats. Shortening and stick margarine are examples.
Vitamins are organic substances in food that are used by the body to regulate how it works.
Unsaturated fats are usually from liquid and plant sources, such as canola oil, seeds, and nuts. Moderate amounts can help lower blood cholesterol and protect the heart.
Vegan is a person who eats only plant based foods. Omits all animal products from their diet.
Vegetarian a person who eats vegetables, fruits, nuts, grain, etc. Does not eat meat, fish, fowl. However, in some cases they may not eat any food derived from animals, such as eggs or cheese.
Wash hands for at least 20 seconds with warm water and soap before handling food and always after handling meat, eggs, pets, diapers, or leaving the bathroom.
Water soluble vitamins examples are folic acid, Vitamin A, and the B vitamins.
Affects on a person's diet and nutritional choices
- Economic conditions or Money
Nutritional key ideas
History of five vitamins
Physical activity and health key ideas
- Physical activity is any movement that works your muscles and causes the body to use more energy than when it is resting.
- Physical fitness is the state of being ability to perform your occupations, sports, and generally go about your life without being tired or needing assistance.
- Exercise is any activity with physical effort that improves or maintains physical fitness. Activities that may be planned, repeated, and structured.
- Sedentary is being inactive or seated resulting in little physical activity.
Benefits achieved by regular physical exercise and a healthy diet.
- Cardiovascular system - exercise strengthens the heart so it can more easily pump blood. Reducing heart rate, blood pressure, increasing flow of nutrients to the cells and waste away from cells, more efficient flow of oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide from cells, and lowers levels of bad cholesterol.
- Respiratory system - exercise increases the amounts of air brought into the lungs and the amount of oxygen transferred to the cells. Provides for better metabolism and endurance. Increased air flow reduces chances of respiratory infections such as cold, flu, and phnemonea.
- Skeletal system - exercise strengths bones which provide greater support and endurance and is needed to maintain it into old age.
- Muscular system - exercise increases muscle strength, size, flexibility, balance, coordination, and endurance.
- Body composition -exercise provides a more balanced body. Having a more healthy fat to lean body tissue. More healthy blood sugar level. Having a better balance of hormones for better feelings and emotional stability. See also exercise reduces stress and anxiety.
- Exercise assists immunity
- Sleep - exercise helps people to get to sleep more easily, sleep longer, and better.
- Self-esteem - exercise provides a sense of accomplishment allowing you to do more and feel better. Regular exercise and a healthy diet also helps you look better, which can increase self-esteem.
- Social benefits from exercise develop by being more active and presenting more opportunities to interact with more people in a positive energetic manner. Being involved in sports allows for greater opportunities of teamwork and sportsmanship.
Kinds of exercise
Aerobic exercise uses large groups of muscles and raises heart rate with the use of oxygen. Exercises such as jogging, rowing, swimming, or cycling. Strengthens the heart and lungs, thereby improving the body's use of oxygen.
Anaerobic exercise uses oxygen more quickly than the body is able to replenish it inside the working muscle through blood flow. Therefore, muscle fibers provide energy from stored carbohydrates like glycogen, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and creatine phosphate (CP). Weight training is an example of such an activity that is anabolic, but can become catabolic (destructive metabolism) if done in excess.
Isometric exercise is muscle exercise with little or no movement of the muscles. Such as pushing against a wall or muscle pushing or pulling against another muscle while remaining stationary.
Isotonic exercise is movement of joint with their related muscles by lifting a constant weight at variable speeds through a range of motion. Such as lifting free weights, doing push-up, sit-ups, to build strength and flexibility.
Isokinetic exercise is based on lifting, pulling, or pushing variable weight or resistance at a constant speed. Such as using a weight machine and other exercise equipment to increase muscular strength, power, and endurance.
Considerationa for Planning a personal activity program
- Type of workout - see kinds of exercise above to combine for workouts that will achieve your goals.
- Cost - dependent on kind of activity, recreation facility or center, entry fees, purchase personal machines, weights, other equipment, shoes and clothing.
- Location - facility: inside outside, weather or climate control, distance to travel,
- Schedule - frequency and intensity of workout, when: days and times, morning, afternoon, night and how long.
- Personalized - beginning level of fitness, appropriate selection of activity, and progression of intensity will meet your desired needs and expected goals or results.
- Over all health - doctor approval for the type of exercise selected.
- Safety concerns - equipment safety, know how to use equipment, appropriate exercises for you, warm-up, cool-down, other participants are reliable and trustworthy.
Mental and emotional health key ideas
- Maslow's hierarchy
- How to increase self-esteem
- Procedures to Manage Emotions:
- Recognize your feelings as emotionally related
- Defense Mechanisms
- Recognize your feelings as emotionally related
- Procedure to Manage Fear
- Procedure to Manage Guilt
- Procedure to Manage Anger
- Procedure to Manage and Deal with Stressful Situations
- Teen Stressors
- Bodily Responses to alarm, stress and chronic stress
- Ways to Manage and Reduce stress
- Caffeine and hormones
- Coping with loss and grief: Five Stages of grief or loss
- Anxiety and depression
Accurate and quality information is needed to make good decisions.
To be healthy that includes: understanding what is human, the body, it's anatomy, functions of life, growth, and development well enough to care for your self and others to attain and maintain healthy bodies: physical, emotional, mental, and social. To do so one must be able to describe, analyze, predict, and compare how different variables, learning, nutrition diet, exercise, sleep, choice of behaviors, genetics, injuries, health status, illness, safety, natural disasters, risks, will impact people in different situations or conditions.