Resources for Professional Educators

Book annotations by categories:


Science Education



EcoJustice Education 3rd edition Routelege: NY. 2021.
by Rebecca A. Martusewicz, Jeff Edmundson, & John Lupinacci. 275 pages.
EcoJustice Education book cover

Describes a model for cultural ecological analysis and a pedagogy of responsibility for teachers, teacher educators, and scholars with its theory and classroom practices to help develop citizens who are prepared to support and achieve diverse, democratic, and sustainable societies. Readers are asked to consider curricular strategies to bring these issues to life in their own classrooms across disciplines to examine the larger ideological, social, historical, and political contexts of the crises humans and the planet we inhabit are facing.

Chapter 1: Introduction: The Purposes of Education in an Age of Ecological Crises and Worldwide Insecurities;

Chapter 2: Rethinking Diversity and Democracy for Sustainable Communities;

Chapter 3: Cultural Foundations of the Crisis: A Cultural/Ecological Analysis;

Chapter 4: Learning Anthropocentrism: An EcoJustice Approach to Human Supremacy and Education;

Chapter 5: Learning Androcentrism: An EcoJustice Approach to Gender and Education;


Chapter 6: Learning our Place in the Social Hierarchy: An EcoJustice Approach to Class Inequality and Impoverishment;

Chapter 7: Learning Racism: An EcoJustice Approach to Racial Inequality, co-authored by Gary Schnakenberg;

Chapter 8: Learning about Globalization: Education, Enclosures, and Resistance;

Chapter 9: Learning from Indigenous Communities;

Chapter 10: Teaching for the Commons: Educating for Diverse, Democratic, and Sustainable Communities

See Sustainable principled procedures


The War on Science: Who's Waging It Why It Matters What We Can Do about It. Milkweed, 2016. by Shawn Otto. 428 pages
Cover War on Science

If you have wondered why it has become so popular for people to reject scientific ideas and the benefits they provide, then this groundbreaking and fascinating book provides insight.

Shawn Otto investigaes and describes the rises and falls of science over the centuries and more importantly, for us, the decline of fact based scientific reasoning the last few decades.

Shawn describes how many Americans have become antiscience. More importantly among them are politicians, business owners, investors, industrial leaders, journalists, and scientists themselves.

His careful research and insightful descriptions to counter misconceptions on: radiation, GMO's, vaccinations, climate, and much more can help us understand how people's misconceptions and fears can be exploited to manipulate them and lead them to deny good science.

Science, which is necessary to know how to use facts in a scientific manner to make better decisions than decisions made based on emotions and nonsense.

Decisions that are based on reproducible verifiable facts and scientific reasoning; that are communicated in a manner to help people overcome their fears, created with misconceptions, and replace them with sound, fact based, scientifically reasoned explanations in a manner they can understand and be able to confidently accept and act on repeatedly for theirs and others benefits.

The author describes how this might be achieved so we might again have greater confidence in using science to make decisions that will benefit our children and grandchildren and sustain a habitable Earth.


Behave:The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst. Penguin Random House: NY. 2017.
by Robert M. Sapolsky, 717 pages.
Behave cover

Behave moves from the discussion of single events, genetic, past experience, parenting, ... to a more comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Supported by recent research from many areas: genetics, neuroscience, brain, chemistry, and biology, Robert Sapolsky explores: How much free will we have to make decisions? How is it we can we make very good decisions at times and very bad decisions at times?

His explanations are intricate. We don't just accept or reject a behavior. Like violence, we reject in certain situations and embrace in others. His explanations go beyond simple explanations to consider behaviors as having multiple levels of causality embeded in multiple areas of our brain that reference past and present experiences.

Robert summarizes some main ideas in this TED talk

Kid's Eye View of Science: A Conceptual Integrated Approach to teaching Science K-6.. Corwin Press - Merrill. Columbus, Ohio. 2010.
by Susan J. Kovalik and Karen D. Olsen. 717 pages.
book cover image

Suggested for those that want to review or explore the big ideas of how science literacy can be facilitated in K-6. It is right on about how science and school instruction can motivate and meet the needs of students through real world exploration. It is short on examples on how those important ideas can be implemented in planning and in the classroom.

Teaching Inquiry Science in Middle and Secondary Schools. Sage Publications Inc. Thousand Oaks, California. 2009.
by Anton E. Lawson.
book cover image

Suggested for those that want to focus on inquiry science. The following questions are explored: What is science? Why teach science? What is the nature of scientific knowledge? How do scientists construct knowledge? How do people develop effective reasoning patterns? What teaching methods best facilitate scientific knowledge acquisition?



Productive Learning: Science, Art, and Einstein's Relativity in Educational Reform.Corwin Press: CA. ISBN# 1-4129-4060-5 . 2007.
by Stanistaw D. Glazek & Seymour B. Sarason.
book cover image

Suggested for those who don't believe they can learn science or science is too complicated for most students. The authors argue the main problem with science education in the United States is - it lacks substance and consequently is of little value to students. Their solution - science needs to be comprehensive enough to create productive learning. The first chapters present a convincing argument of this philosophical idea and later chapters include instructional dialog that demonstrates how ideas of Einstein's Relativity Theory can be understood by all.



The Secret Under My Skin.. Harper Collins Publishers Inc.,NY. ISBN # 0-06-008989-X . 2005.
by Janet McNaughton.
book cover image

Suggested to read aloud to fifth grade and up to discuss what is science, how do people use it, what do students need to know and do to understand and use it, and how likely is the future described in the the book?


Support for professional reflection on the text - focus topics and ideas



Selected Resources to Support Professional Science Educators

Author(s) Date Title


Comments Reference Information Rating
Bruce Watson and Richard Konicek 1990 Teaching for Conceptual Change: Confronting Children''s Esperience Article Great fourth grade teachers story about her experience with students and heat. Kappan May 1990 full text Five stars
Ellen Doris 1991 Doing What Scientists Do: Children Learn to Investigate Their World Book Using children's drawings and notes to develop science and language abilities. Many annotated examples of students exploring their world as scientists and examples of their notebooks from K-6 grade. Topics in clude creating an environment for science, first class meeting, extending science work, interpreting children's work, making change... Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann Five stars
Braund, Martin. 1998 Trends in children's concepts of vertebrate and invertebrate. Article
Journal of Biological Education, Summer 98, Vol. 32, Issue 2, p 112, 7p No Rating
Costa, Nilza; Marques,Luis; Kempa, Richard. 2000 Science Teacher's Awareness of Findings from Education Research. Article Teachers misconceptions on students learning science, survey included. Research in Science & Technological Education, May 2000, Vol. 18 Issue 1 p 37, 8p. Three stars
Culen, Gerald.; Volk, Trudi L. 2000 Effects of an Extended Case Study on Environmental Behavior and Associated Variables in Seventh and Eighth-Grade Students. Article
Journal of Environmental Education, Winter 2000, Vol 31 Issue 2, p9, 7p, 7 charts
Griffiths, Allan K.; Thompson, Jeffrey. 1993 Secondary school students' understanding of scientific processes: An interview study. Article Great discussion on hypothesizing and variables Research in Science & technology education. Vol. 11 Issue 1, p15-27. Five stars
Henderson, Garry. 1999 Learning with Diagrams. Article Most science teachers use diagrams without consideration as to how students may or may not understand them. Schollum (1983) found six distinct ways arrows are used. Australian Science Teachers Journal. Jun99, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p17-26. Three stars
Luft, Julie A. 1999 The Border Crossings of a Multicultural Science Education Enthusiast. Article Article is about Julie a preservice teacher and her reflections on crossing the borders of Hispanic and traditional/constructivist methods. Transition between cultures depends on the values, beliefs, and actions that are inconsistent with the cultures. Strong beliefs are difficult to change and there may be borders that should or should not be crossed. School Science & Mathematics, Nov99, Vol. 99 Issue 7 p380-389. Three stars
Morrone, Michhele; Karen Mancl, and Kathleen Carr. 2001 Development of a Metric to Test Group Differences in Ecological Knowledge as One Component of Environmental Literacy. Article Excellent source of concepts and misconception for environmental literacy The Journal of Environmental Education. 2001, Vol 32 No. 4 33-42. Four stars

Plants as Producers: A Case Study of Elementary Science Teaching. Article Problems teacher had in getting students to change their misconceptions about seeds germination and plants photosynthesis. Use of SCIS curriculum and even a very good teacher could not achieve change since the teacher did not concentrate on what the students were thinking and how to use POE or another strategy to create cognitive dissonance. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. (Read? Seems good). Four stars
Pyle, E. J. & Ankin-Moffatt 1999 The effects of visually-enhanced instructional environments on students' conceptual growth. Article Images have shown their value as assessment tools in communicating students' learning (Peterson, 1997). And conceptual change (Koballa & Pyle, 1996). Paivio (1971) described learning in terms of dual coding theory, in which verbal and image-based information are coded in separate interrelated processes. (March 1999). Electronic Journal of Science Education. 3,3 (1-17). Four stars
Salmon, Jeffrey. 2000 Are We Building Environmental Literacy? Article
Journal of Environmental Education, summer 2000, Vol 31 Issue 4, p4 7p. Three stars
Wise, Kevin C. 1996 Strategies for Teaching Science: What Works? Article Inquiry strategies are preferable to traditional teaching for middle and secondary school science instruction. Discusses inquiry defined by eight categories. Based on an initial study of 12 (Wise and Okey 1983, 1985) Clearing House, Jul/Aug96, Vol. 69 Issue 6, p337-339 Three stars
Duckworth, Eleanor 1996 The Having of Wonderful Ideas and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning Book A collection of essays on teaching and learning. Language, a child's way of knowing and thinking, the virtues of not knowing, teaching as research, and more. It has some great ideas and stories. For those that like to learn by listening to stories. Second edition New York, NY: Teacher's College Press. Four stars
F. James Rutherford & Andrew Ahlgren 1989 Science For All Americans Book Excellent Describes science literacy for high school graduates. Comprehensive list of big ideas of science and related concepts for a multidimensional view of science. New York: Oxford University Press Five stars
Leslie Hamilton 1998 Child's Play in Nature Book Science nature activities New York: The Berkley Publishing Group Four stars
Barbara Bourne Ed. D. 2000 Taking Inquiry Outdoors Book
New York: Stenhouse Publishers Three stars
Wentworth, Couchman; MacBean, & Stecher 1976 Mapping Small Places Book Excellent activities for mapping and developing relative position and motion concepts Toronto: Holt, Rinehart & Winston of Canada Five stars
Harlen, Wynne 2001 Primary Science:Taking the Plunge Book Comprehensive for the length and very encouraging for those that may be a bit reluctant to teach science. Why science?, bring children and science together, the right questions at the right time, helping children ask and answer questions, helping children investigate, assessing learning... Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Five stars
Osborne, R., & Freyberg, P. 1989 Learning in science: The Implication of Children's Science Book The publishing date seems to indicate that it might be dated. Not necessarily. This book was so far ahead of mainstream education in the US. that mainstream may be starting to catch up. Definitely a historical text that discusses children's science. Children's ideas, inquiry, child development, discrepancies, learning cycle, generative learning, and teaching science.
Five stars
Lawrence F. Lowery Ed. Arlington VI: National Academy Press. 1996 NSTA Pathways for the Science Standards: Elementary School Edition Book A practicle guide of how to put the vision of the standards into professional practice through professional development, assessment, program and system standards with an emphasis on the Elementary School Standards. Arlington VI: National Academy Press. Five stars
Lawrence F. Lowery Ed. Arlington VI: National Academy Press. 1996 NSTA Pathways for the Science Standards: Middle School Edition Book A practicle guide of how to put the vision of the standards into professional practice through professional development, assessment, program and system standards with an emphasis on the Middle School Standards. Arlington VI: National Academy Press. Five stars
Marek, E. A. & Ann M. L. Cavallo 1997 The Learning Cycle: Elementary School Science and Beyond. Revised edition Book First edition: Renner, J. W. & Marek, E. A. (1988). The learning cycle and elementary school science teaching. Historical significance. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann Five stars

1996 National Science Education Standards Book Also available on line. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Five stars
Reddy, Maureen; Jacobs, Patty; McCrohon, Caryn; & Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert 1998 Creating Scientific Communities in the Elementary Classroom Book Importance of communication, talking, writing, scientific attitudes/habits of mind, journals, and learning community, active cooperative classroom, communication, talk journals. making connections, assessment... Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann Four stars
Atkinson, Sue & Marilyn Fleer. 1995 Science with Reason Book Articles on teaching and learning science, developing teaching strategies, teacher's stories about their teaching which includes 11 different different stories on 11 different topics, practical approache to get started, organizing, policy, assessment, getting better with investigations.
Five stars
Project 2061 2001 Atlas of Science Literacy Book Developmental maps for science, mathematics, and technology concepts. Also available on the inernet see science links. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science National Science Teachers Association, co-Publishers Five stars
Project 2061 1993 Benchmarks for Science Literacy Book Concepts for science, mathematics, and technology for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12. Also available on the inernet see science links. New York, NY: Oxford University Press: American Association for the Advancement of Science Five stars
Commission on Science Education by the American Association for the Advancement of Science 1974 Science- A Process Approach (Commentary for teachers) Book Excellent source for science processes. What are they and activities to match. Historical significance. AAAS/Xerox Corporation Five stars
Brian Campbell and Lori Fulton 2003 Science Notebooks: Writing about Inquiry Book Role of the teacher, elements of a science notebook, signs of student progress, examples of how scientists use notebooks, and connections to conteent, inquiry, processes, literacy, communication, and English L. A. Standards. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann Five stars
Ebenezer, Jazlin, V. & Sylvia Connor 1998 Learning to Teach Science: A Model for the 21st Century Book Undergraduate Textbook. Some great ideas for a constructivist approach to teaching science. Commonknowledge constructivist learning model and Vee diagrams... Columbus, OH: Merrill, an imprint of Prentice Hall Four stars
Hall, Jody S.; Callahan, Carol; Kitchel, Helen; Pierce, Patricia; & O'Brien, Pedie 1998 Organizing Wonder: Making Inquiry Science Work in the Elementary School Book How to do inquiry in the elementary school. Collection of essays on children as scientists, inquiring, teacher reflection and communication, activities on waves, motion, light, and moving from exploration to investigation. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
Five stars
Gabel, Dorothy. (ed.) 1995 Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning Book Five stars for research not fiction...

New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company Five stars
Gabel, Dorothy. (ed.) 1989 What Research Say to the Science Teacher: Problem solving Book
Washington DC: National Science Teachers Association. Five stars
Friedl, Alfred 1991 Teaching Science to Children: An Integrated Approach. Several editions Book Excellent source of science activities in all editions. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Five stars
Karen Ostlund 1992 Assessing Science Process Skills Book Also newer edition Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Four stars
Harlan, Jean 2000 Science Experiences for the Early Childhood Years. (several editions) Book Excellent early childhood science focus. Includes many activities and examples of their use. NY: Macmillan Five stars
Donna E. Alvermann Department of Reading Education University of Georgia
Multiliteracies and Self-Questioning in the Service of Science Learning Online The title says it all
Can multimedia and technology help students ask better questions and increase science learning/ literacy?
Christine Chaille and Lory Britain 2003 The Young Child as Scientist: A Constructivist Approach to Early Childhood Science Education Book

Four stars
Justin G. Lonsbury and James D. Ellis 2002 Science History as a Means to Teach Nature of Science Concepts:
Using the Development of Understanding Related to Mechanisms of Inheritance
Online Good discussion on the nature of science and science literacy.
Presents a very good case for inclusion of history of science as part of curriculum and suggestions on concerns.
Electronic Journal of Science Education Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec. 2002 Five stars
Jennifer Cartier, John Rudolph, and Jim Stewart 2001 The Nature and Structure of Scientific Models Online Modeling for Understanding in Science Education (MUSE) is a collaborative project of university researchers, high school teachers, and students. The educational units found here are based on several years of research at a local high school. Each of these units contains extensive information and materials for use in middle school and/or high school classrooms. NCISLA Wisconsin Center for Education Research School of Education, University of Wisconsin Madison 1025 West Johnson St. Madison, WI 53706
Phone: (608) 263-3605 E-mail: Web site:
Three stars
Tina A. Grotzer and David N. Perkins 2000 A Taxonomy of Causal Models: The Conceptual Leaps
Between Models and Students Reflections on Them
Online Very good discussion with numerous examples on causes that effect students' conceptualization of science concepts and suggests a taxonomy for them. Presented at the National Association of Research
in Science Teaching (NARST)
New Orleans, April 28- May 1, 2000
Five stars
Tina A. Grotzer and Margot Sudbury 2000 Moving Beyond Underlying Linear Causal
Models of Electrical Circuits
Online Very good discussion with examples on causes that effect students' construction of science models of electrical circuits.
Supports - Osborne, R., & Freyberg, P. and others studies.
Presented at the National Association of Research
in Science Teaching (NARST)
New Orleans, April 28- May 1, 2000
Five stars
David N. Perkins and Tina A. Grotzer 2001 Models and Moves: The Role of Causal and Epistemic Complexity in Students Understanding of Science Online The authors argue that science instruction hardly ever stands back to examine the general styles of modeling that figure in various particular theories. Students who catch on to such styles do so on their own, by and large. This situation, we propose, lies at the heart of students problems of understanding science. As students progress through the years, they encounter a wide range of science concepts involving styles of modeling increasingly removed from common sense and everyday experience.
Don't let the abstract freak you out. Great article to develop strategies to help student think about scientific explanations.
Numerous examples
Great tables on the dimensions of complexity in models

Five stars
Tina Grotzer and Belinda Bell 2001 Negotiating the Funnel: Guiding Students Toward Understanding Elusive
Generative Concepts
Online There are topics, such as force and motion, the nature of matter, and probability, that most students just don t seem to understand deeply. Some might do all right on multiple choice tests, but as soon as a question scratches the surface, they don t know how to answer it. Or they say the same kinds of things that they said before we studied the topic.
This article discusses how to teach for deep and generative understanding and what it requires that teachers attend to for these seemingly elusive concepts. Five stars
Tina A. Grotzer 2000 How Conceptual Leaps in Understanding the Nature of Causality Can
Limit Learning: An Example from Electrical Circuits
Online Research on traditional bulb and battery circuit for conceptual understanding.
Supports Osborne, R., & Freyberg, P. Four stars
Belinda B. Basca and Tina A. Grotzer 2001 Focusing on the Nature of Causality in a Unit on Pressure:
How does it Affect Student Understanding?
Online Apply David N. Perkins and Tina A. Grotzer model of causality to students' pressure conceptualization:
1. Students reason using obvious variables rather than considering nonobvious
variables when determining the causes of pressure-related events.
2. Students reason linearly rather than systemically when thinking about
3. Students often think of pressure as a directional quantity, pushing down on
things, rather than existing in an omni-directional fashion.
4. Students often use the terms pressure and force interchangeably. Five stars
President and Fellows of Harvard College, Understandings of Consequence Project 2002 Causal Patterns in Ecosystems: Lessons to Infuse into Ecosystems Units to Enable Deeper Understanding Online Understanding ecosystem relationships as scientists do involves reasoning about forms of cause and effect that most students are unfamiliar with. Students typically reason using simple linear cause and effect, where one thing directly makes another thing happen. However, understanding ecosystems involves more complex patterns of causality. This module introduces domino, cyclic, and two-way patterns of causality. Five stars
Flick, L., & Bell, R. 2000 Preparing Tomorrow's Science Teachers to Use Technology: Guidelines for Science Educators Online Discusses:
1. Technology should be introduced in the context of science content.
2. Technology should address worthwhile science with appropriate pedagogy.
3. Technology instruction in science should take advantage of the unique features of technology.
4. Technology should make scientific views more accessible.
5. Technology instruction should develop students' understanding of the relationship between technology and science.
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 1(1), 39-60. Five stars
School Science & Mathematics, Mar2002, Vol. 102 Issue 3, p114, 10p. Four stars
Michael Brooks 2000 FOOLED AGAIN
New Scientist , Dec 9, 2000 v168 i2268 p24
Three stars
Olaf Jorgenson, Jackie Cleveland, and Rick Vanosdall 2004 Doing Good Science in Middle School: A Practical Guide to Inquiry-Based Instruction. Online pdf file
permission to use for classroom instruction
activities and instructional suggestions
NSTA press Arlington Virginia
Sci Links
Four stars
Cynthia E. Ledbetter
Levels of Inquiry
inquiry learning cycle bloom's taxonomy to rate student level of learning.
Three stars
NSTA National Standards Online
.pdf file online at Five stars
Alec M. Bodzin & Karen M. Beerer 2003 Promoting inquiry-based science instruction: the validation of the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR). Article Research based application of inquiry with a six part rubric to evaluate science instruction for inquiry Journal of Elementary Science Education, Fall 2003 v15 i2 p39(11) Five stars

2003 Science Education Reform in Rural America: A Snapshot Online Education Development Center
good for grants or developing an arguement for how rural students are being short changed in science
Center for Science Education, EDC Four stars
James J. Watters; Carmel M. Diezmann; Susan J. Grieshaber; Julie M. Davis 2001 Enhancing science education for young children : A contemporary initiative Article This paper describes a professional development initiative which enhances teachers' understanding of science concepts, and supports their teaching of the subject. The workshops adopted a `child-centred' approach that was scaffolded by teacher educators. Thus, the teachers' learning paralleled those exemplary experiences advocated for children. Australian Journal of Early Childhood , June 2001 v26 i2 p1 Five stars
David A. Heflich; Juli K. Dixon; Kathleen S. Davis 2001 The Authentic Integration of Mathematics and Technology in Inquiry-Based Science Instruction Article
Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching , Spring 2001 v20 i1 p99 Four stars
Alan Colburn 2000 Constructivism: Science Education's "Grand Unifying Theory". Article Good discussion on constructivism
The Clearing House, Sept 2000 v74 i1 p9 Four stars
Kathryn Kelsey & Ashley Steel 2001 The Truth about Science: A Curriculum for Developing Young Scientists Online Middle school hands-on activities whith student-designed research projects to develop thinking and research skills used by scientists. The approach integrates creative thinking, critical thinking, problem solving, reading, writing, and mathematics. NSTA press
Sci Links
Four stars



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