Environmental Health Decisions
(middle grades)
Activity and Lesson plans

Overview

This is a unit plan for student's to review and facilitate their understanding of the effects of the environment on health. This includes beneficial and detrimental environmental affects on health and how influences impact the decisions people make. Reasoned decisions and decisions made subconsciously and emotionally without sufficient critical thinking.

Human's interactions with the environment determines their quality of life, life expectancy, and health. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environment, as it relates to health, as

“all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related behaviors.” Source page 22.

Environmental health is the study of how the environment affects human health and disease. The natural and human made, built, environments can be described by six variables:

  1. Air
  2. Water
  3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat)
  4. Energy
  5. Human health
  6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment

“Environment,” in this context, means things in the natural environment like air, water and soil, and also all the physical, chemical, biological and social features of our surroundings. The man-made, or “built,” environment includes physical structures where people live and work such as homes, offices, schools, farms and factories, as well as community systems such as roads and transportation systems, land use practices and waste management. Consequences of human alteration to the natural environment, such as air pollution, are also parts of the man-made environment. The social environment encompasses lifestyle factors like diet and exercise, socioeconomic status, and other societal influences that may affect health. – National Institute of Environmental Health Science

Activities include a four step process to create a model of nature and human activities. The model is then used to develop a comprehensive list of the six environmental health variables and human impacts. Which, are used to understand the complexity of environmental health and appreciate how difficult it is to make environmental decisions. The model and list are used to review historical environmental disasters, technological decisions, and then used with a decision making process, to analyze personal decisions, their effects on the environmental health, and influences that affect those decisions. Lastly, students will make a poster, video, or skit to suggest how to positively affect environmental health related to their personal decision.

Related study topics:

  • Investigate environmental health, related to social science issues such as: government and economics: laissez-faire, Adam Smith’s invisible hand, capitalism, capitalist socialism, socialism, and other world economies and politics. Relating their relationships to decision making for healthy environments.
  • Science related investigations. Air, water, land quality investigations

Background information:

This plan is designed for students who have prior knowledge in
1. Affects on health, 2. goal setting, and 3. decision making. Knowledge facilitated with participation in the following units:

  1. Six affects on health (environment, heredity, technology, people, media, & culture)
  2. Mental Emotional Health Activities with goal setting
  3. Decision making process and scenarios for healthy living unit

Big ideas, concepts, facts, and outcomes

Health standards

Big ideas and specific outcomes:

  • Standard 1 - Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.
  • Standard 2 - Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology, and other factors on health behaviors.
  • Standard 3 - Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid information and products and services to enhance health.
  • Standard 4 - Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.
  • Standard 5 - Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.
  • Standard 6 - Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting skills to enhance health.
  • Standard 7 - Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce risks.
  • Standard 8 - Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

Related concepts and facts

Big idea: Healthy environmental choices are made with accurate information and a reasoned decision making process.

  • Humans survival depends on the resources available. On Earth we consider resources as all living and nonliving things. When we consider affects on health, risks can be classified into six categories: environment, heredity, technology, people, media, & culture; as identified in the unit: Introduction to health, affects on health, risks, & promoting wellness. This unit, on healthy environmental choices, focuses on six environmental variables and their affects on environmental health.
    1. Air
    2. Water
    3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat)
    4. Energy
    5. Human health
    6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment

Outcomes

  1. Use accurate verifiable information to make healthy environmental decisions.
  2. Be aware both positive and negative influences affect the way people look at information and influence decisions.
  3. Identify at least six variables that affect environmental health.
    1. Air
    2. Water
    3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat)
    4. Energy
    5. Human health
    6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment

Environments and consequences on human health

Big ideas: Understand the effects interaction with the environmental have on humans and the environment to enable us individually or in collaboration with others to determine the consequences of the decisions we make so that we might improve ours and others health and quality of life.

Related concepts and facts

  • The more a person knows about anatomy, them self as an individual, and the different effects of what they put in their body, the better decisions they will make.
  • The natural environment and constructed environment provide everything humans use to survive, to treat or prevent disease, and maintain a healthy and happy life.

Outcome

  1. Describe positive and negative effects the natural and constructed environment has on the human body and its health.
  2. Describe the process of how different environmental changes may interact with different body systems, tissues, and cells to result in healthy and unhealthy consequences.

Specific outcomes -

Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention
to enhance health.

1.12.1 Predict how healthy behaviors can impact health status.
1.12.2 Describe the interrelationships of emotional, intellectual, physical, and social health.
1.12.3 Analyze how environment and personal health are interrelated.
1.12.4 Analyze how genetics and family history can impact personal health.
1.12.5 Propose ways to reduce or prevent injuries and health problems.
1.12.6 Analyze the relationship between access to health care and health status.
1.12.7 Compare and contrast the benefits of and barriers to practicing a variety of healthy behaviors.
1.12.8 Analyze personal susceptibility to injury, illness, or death if engaging in unhealthy behaviors.
1.12.9 Analyze the potential severity of injury or illness if engaging in unhealthy behaviors.

Decision-making skills to enhance health.

Big ideas: It is important to know how to discover accurate verifiable information about different medicines and drugs to make good healthy decisions. Decision-making skills are necessary to identify, implement, and sustain health-enhancing behaviors. This includes essential steps needed to make healthy decisions applied to health, safety, and social issues to enable people to individually or in collaboration with others improve people's quality of life.

Related concepts and facts

  • Health and safety problems are related to decision making.
  • The better a person knows them self, the better decisions they will make.
  • Effective social skills improve communication and getting along with people.
  • Thinking about a problem before experiencing it helps make better decisions.
  • There are positive and negative consequences for all decisions.
  • There are positive and negative influences to consider when making decisions.

Outcome

  1. Describe the relationships between making good decisions and being healthy.
  2. Describe a decision making process that includes identification of a problem, alternative solutions with positive and negative consequences, and implementation suggestions.
  3. Describe positive and negative influences that impact decision making.
  4. Use a decision making process to make safe and healthy decisions that improve people's quality of life.

Specific outcomes -

2.12.1 Analyze how family influences the health of individuals.
2.12.2 Analyze how culture supports and challenges health beliefs, practices, and behaviors.
2.12.3 Analyze how peers influence healthy and unhealthy behaviors.
2.12.4 Evaluate how the school and community can impact personal health practice and behaviors.
2.12.5 Evaluate the effect of media on personal and family health.
2.12.6 Evaluate the impact of technology on personal, family, and community health.
2.12.7 Analyze how the perceptions of norms influence healthy and unhealthy behaviors.
2.12.8 Analyze the influence of personal values and beliefs on individual health practices and behaviors.
2.12.9 Analyze how some health risk behaviors can influence the likelihood of engaging in unhealthy behaviors.
2.12.10 Analyze how public health policies and government regulations can influence health promotion and disease prevention

3.12.1 Evaluate the validity of health information, products, and services.
3.12.2 Utilize resources from home, school, and community that provide valid health information.
3.12.3 Determine the accessibility of products and services that enhance health.
3.12.4 Determine when professional health services may be required.
3.12.5 Access valid and reliable health products and services.

4.12.1 Utilize skills for communicating effectively with family, peers, and others to enhance health.
4.12.2 Demonstrate refusal, negotiation, and collaboration skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.
4.12.3 Demonstrate strategies to prevent, manage, or resolve interpersonal conflicts without harming self or others.
4.12.4 Demonstrate how to ask for and offer assistance to enhance the health of self and others.

5.12.1 Examine barriers that can hinder healthy decision making.
5.12.2 Determine the value of applying a thoughtful decision-making process in health-related situations.
5.12.3 Justify when individual or collaborative decision making is appropriate.
5.12.4 Generate alternatives to health-related issues or problems.
5.12.5 Predict the potential short and long term impact of each alternative on self and others.
5.12.6 Defend the healthy choice when making decisions.
5.12.7 Evaluate the effectiveness of health related decisions.

Pedagogical Overview & Teacher plans

Activities Sequence to provide sufficient opportunities for students to achieve the targeted outcomes.

Make sure students have the prior knowledge identified in the background information.

  1. Activity 1 - Teacher plan
    1. 1a - Brainstorm their prior knowledge of Nature before significant human impact: environmental factors, organism in the environment, & environmental interactions to maintain a balanced ecosystem of nature.
    2. 1b, c, & d - Add to Nature model. Humans, needs for human survival and
    3. 1e - Environmental Variables
  2. Activity 2 - Environmental Health Disasters
  3. Activity 3 - Historical decisions with Positive & Negative Environmental Impacts
  4. Could insert additional investigations here.
    • Visit sewage plant or bring in a manager to explain how sewage is processed.
    • Visit water plant or bring in the manager to explain how clean water is provided.
    • Invite park and recreational director to class to explain how parks and recreational areas are decided, funded, and maintained.
    • Science investigations - Example air, water, land quality investigations
  5. Activity 4 - Making healthy environmental decisions today
    1. Influences on environmental decisions
    2. Decision Making for personal and environmental health
  6. Activity 5 - Implementation of environmental decisions
  7. Review
  8. Review answer key

Focus question

Unit focus question:

How do the decisions people make affect the environment?

Sub focus questions:

  1. What is nature?
  2. What sustains life on Earth?
  3. What are environmental factors?
  4. What relationships are in nature?
  5. What is the relationship of organisms in nature?
  6. What is the purpose of organisms in nature?
  7. How are human needs for survival, good health, and good living provided?
  8. What makes a health environment?
  9. What are significant variables in a model of nature?

Resources and Materials

  1. Lab notes | activity 1 | activity 2 | activity 3 | activity 4 | activity 5 |
  2. Fact sheets | blank nature model | nature model | nature & human model | nature & human change model | Environmental health variables and human impacts | Particulate matter | Gasoline, Diesel, E10 | Circles of Influence - fact sheet - |
  3. Worksheet with Nine step decision making process & Critical Thinking outline
  4. Blank Worksheet for a 9 Step Decision Making Cycle
  5. Decision Making, Critical Thinking, and Change Processes
  6. Word bank
  7. References and additional resources

 

Scoring guides suggestions (rubric)

environmental factors and communities classification (scoring guide)

Top level

  1. Includes topics that describe related groups of environmental factors and communities . Topics include ....
  2. Includes topics that describe related groups of environmental factors and communities. Topics include ... Include an example for each category.
  3. Includes topics that describe related groups of environmental factors and communities and specific examples.

Lower level

Decision making skills to enhance environmental health (scoring guide)

  • Low level: Makes decisions subconsciously and emotionally or in a manner that believes will result in the best rewards personally or socially (parents, teachers, friends, ...).
  • Middle level: Makes decisions with a multiple step process that uses several appropriate steps for making decisions and excludes some that may be necessary to make better decisions.
  • Upper level: Makes decisions with a process that includes identification of a problem, alternative solutions with positive and negative consequences, and implementation suggestions. And describes benefits of a comprehensive decision making process.
  • Top level: Makes decisions with a process that includes focus on a process, accurate information, identification of a problem, analysis, generation of alternative options and choices with positive and negative consequences, implementation, and evaluation suggestions. And describes benefits of a comprehensive decision making process.

Scenario Activity Rubric with outcomes & scoring guide

Advocacy related outcomes ( 5 points)                               Total ______ / 100

  • Presented and advocated positive healthy environmental choices
  • Presented and promoted information that supports a healthy environmental
  • Interacted with awareness of the audience
  • Encouraged others to make healthy environmental choices
  • Demonstrated passion or conviction for the information presented

Goal Setting related outcomes ( 5 points)

  • Focused on the presentation as the goal
  • Created a work path that was realistic and attainable
  • Selected an effective strategy and plan to implement and achieve the goal
  • Monitored, evaluated, and reflected on the plan and its implementation and made adjustments as necessary

Communication related outcomes ( 50 points)

Presentation completed __ Data sheet completed __ Review completed __

  • Clear - presentation of ideas that were easy to understand
  • Precise - information was appropriate for the presentation
  • Reliable - consistent good quality information that can be trusted
  • Logical - ideas fit together without discrepancies and supported the conclusions
  • Relevant - idea or ideas that fit the purpose of the presentation
  • Consistent - idea or ideas are supported by observation, current research, or wisdom of practice. novel ideas are developed with plausible explanations.
  • Comprehensive - contains necessary and sufficient information and supporting information to communicate the idea or group of ideas and all their complexity and connectedness through multiple perspectives
  • Complexity includes explanations and examples of the functions of the system. ___
  • Unbiased - fair nonprejudicial presentation of information and all messages given

Group interactions

  • Interactions with group members assisted achievement of the appropriate goals.
  • Used appropriate listening skills
  • Distinguished between supported factual information and beliefs or emotional feelings by stating "I think" or "I feel" or using I statements
  • Used a respectful tone
  • Used appropriate body language
  • Supported their messages with research, logical reasoning, and meaningful explanations

Decision Making related outcomes (10 points)

Decisions for planning and presenting their presentation

  • Low level: Makes decisions subconsciously and emotionally or in a manner that believes will result in the best rewards personally or socially (parents, teachers, friends, ...). (7)
  • Middle level: Makes decisions with a multiple step process that uses several appropriate steps for making decisions and excludes some that may be necessary to make better decisions. (8)
  • Upper level: Makes decisions with a process that includes identification of a problem, alternative solutions with positive and negative consequences, and implementation suggestions. And describes benefits of a comprehensive decision making process. (9)
  • Top level: Makes decisions with a process that includes focus on a process, accurate information, identification of a problem, analysis, generation of alternative options and choices with positive and negative consequences, implementation, and evaluation suggestions. And describes benefits of a comprehensive decision making process. (10)

Analyzing Influences related outcomes ( 5 points)

  • Identified and analyzed personal influences and how they vary.
  • Identified social biases and influences that affected accuracy of information and decision making.
  • Interpreted how conditions and influences impact relationships and used this information to better make decisions, set goals, communicate, advocate for health, and achieve goals.

Accessing Information related outcomes ( 5 points)

Took steps to get valid health information and appropriate health services.

  • Cited sources.
  • Evaluated the validity of sources.
  • Mentioned appropriate health resources for the problem.
  • Included specific types of help available for different needs.

Refusal Skills related outcomes ( 5 points)

  • Included the word "no" in any refusal response.
  • Provided an explanation of why in any refusal response.
  • Offered appropriate alternatives in place of the proposed activity that is being rejected.
  • Used body language that supported the communication of refusal.
  • Included a description of "moving on" from the situation.

Self-Management Skills related outcomes ( 5 points)

  • Included healthy behaviors and habits for a person to affect the environment in a healthy way.
  • Identified protective behaviors ( .............. ) to achieve a healthy environment.
  • Described procedures for protective behaviors for a healthy environment (...............)

Conflict Resolution related outcomes ( 5 points)

  • Identified problems if they occurred
  • Invented options for the group's benefit
  • Agreed on a solution that benefited the group
  • Interactions to solve conflicts were:
    • Low level: Social interactions seem to be driven by subconscious emotional influences in a manner that suggests decisions are based on influences for immediate personal or social outcomes and rewards, without regard to individual rights, concern for conflict resolution, or use of applicable social skills. (3)
    • Middle level: Social interactions seem to recognize a conflict between subconscious influences and logical consequences while recognizing different ways to resolve conflict and attempt to solve problems with regard to individual rights of assertion and use of applicable social skills to make or accept a decision that most individuals can accept. (4)
    • Upper level: Social interactions recognize a conflict between subconscious influences and logical consequences and identify multiple ways to resolve conflict with respect to accept each person's individual rights of assertion and use appropriate social skills when focusing on and stating the problem, analyzing the problem, stating alternative options and choices with positive and negative consequences, and communicating decisions that most individuals accept. (5)

Stress Management related outcomes ( 5 points)

  • Identified situations that caused stress
  • Demonstrated techniques to manage and reduce stress (talking about it, relaxation strategies, getting to work, not procrastinating ...)

The rubric was created based on the Healthy Practices Skills and Outcomes for a middle level health course, which were heavily influenced by the national health standards.

Lesson Plans

Activity 1 - Nature (Earth) before significant human impact
non living (environmental factors) & living (organisms)

Materials:

Focus questions:

  1. What is nature?
  2. What sustains life on Earth?
  3. What are environmental factors?
  4. What relationships are in nature?
  5. What is the relationship of organisms in nature?
  6. What in the purpose of organisms in nature?
  7. How are human needs for survival, good health, and good living provided through nature?
  8. What makes a health environment?
  9. What are significant variables in a model of nature?

Learning outcomes:

  1. Identify and describe environmental factors.
  2. Identify different kinds of organisms and if they are consumers, plants, decomposers.
  3. Describe how the water, energy, oxygen-carbon dioxide, cycles function for the benefit of life.
  4. Describe ecosystems, communities, and habitats.
  5. Share Nature model and make sure students understand ...

Suggested procedures overview:

  1. This is a four part lesson | lesson 1a | 1b | 1c | 1d | that reviews nature as the living and nonliving aspects of Earth and the interactions that support life, human life, and needs to be understood to infer environmental health.
  2. Put students in groups, focus their attention, and assess their initial understanding of the focus questions.
  3. Activity 1a, uses a blank nature model to add environmental factors, organisms, decomposers, and ecosystems.
  4. Activity 1b, adds humans and their needs to the information from 1a.
  5. Activity 1c, adds human changes to nature to the information from 1b.
  6. Activity 1d, reviews all the information used to create an environmental health model.

Exploration

Activity: Brainstorm student's knowledge of nature ...

  1. Review brainstorming guidelines.
  2. Have students brainstorm answers to the focus questions and add them to the Nature model for activity 1a in their lab notes.
    1. What is nature?
    2. What sustains life on Earth?
    3. What are environmental factors?
    4. What relationships are in nature?
    5. What is the relationship of organisms in nature?
    6. What is the purpose of organisms in nature?
  3. After five or so minutes if a group hasn't included ideas about environmental factors and communities move to each group and ask them to add that to their brainstorming.
  4. After alloted time is up, share results.
  5. This is exploration for students and you to review what they know. There is no need to evaluate the accuracy of what they have. That will come in the invention.

Inventions

Activity: 1b, & 1c, 1d

Activity 1b

  1. Review information students brainstormed and wrote on lab sheet for activity 1a and compare to information on lab sheet for activity 1b.
    1. What is nature? Nature is everything in the universe, living and nonliving ...
    2. What sustains life on Earth? Environmental factors.
    3. What are environmental factors? All objects that affect life. Air, water, habitat for shelter to maintain temperature, earth, food, gravity, ...
    4. What relationships are in nature? Oxygen - carbon dioxide cycle, Water cycle, Life cycle for each species of organisms, nitrogen cycle, energy cycle or food cycle.
    5. What is the relationship of organisms in nature? Forming an interconnected ecosystem to sustain life on Earth.
      • Carbon Dioxide - Oxygen Cycle plants use of carbon dioxide with sunlight to make simple sugar (C6H12O6) for food and release oxygen as a waste gas. The process generally happens in leaves where sunlight is absorbed, oxygen enters, and carbon dioxide exits.
      • Energy cycle is a process that sustains life on Earth. Plants combine sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water through photosynthesis to make sugar (C6H12O6) to use for energy to live. Plant consumers (herbivores) consume plants for their energy, animals (omnivores & carnivores) consume plants and animals for their energy and decomposers decompose living things for their energy and their waste recycles as environmental factors.
      • Life cycle is the process of change each organism undergoes from life to death including most importantly reproduction to sustain the species.
      • Nitrogen cycle is the continuous process where nitrogen, in different chemical forms, passes from the atmosphere, to organisms, soil, and water back to the air to sustain life on Earth. Exchange happens with rain, decomposition, bacteria and plant metabolism, fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification.
    1. What is the purpose of organisms in nature? Good question. An answer would depend on a personal philosophy. From a human centered or (narcissistic) point of view it would be to sustain human life. From an ecosystem point of view life sustains life through interconnections and the energy cycle.
  1. Check student understanding of the information:
    1. What are consumers, plants, decomposers?
      • Consumer is an organism that gets its food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter. Unable to produce its own food like plants.
      • Plants are multicellular organisms that produce their own food with photosynthesis.
      • Decomposers are organisms whose ecological who feed on dead or decaying organism, which recycle nutrients.
    2. How does water, energy, oxygen-carbon dioxide, cycles function for the benefit of life? Cycles provide the reuse of matter and energy required for life.
    3. What are ecosystems and communities?
      • Ecosystems include all the living organism and nonliving substances within a defined area. Could be the entire Earth or any smaller area on Earth or in the Universe.
      • Communities are all the living organisms within a selected area.
    4. What are habitats? Habitats are the places organisms or populations live.

Activity 1c

  1. After students understand information on lab sheet 1b tell them to add humans, and list human needs to the model of nature and information to answer these questions.
  2. How are human needs for survival, good health, and good living provided through nature? With the environmental factors, organisms, and the cycles to transfer resources to maintain life and life cycles. Health is provided
  3. What have humans added to nature? Habitat for humans, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, plastic, houses, malls, factories, farms, mined ores, roads, airports and shipping ports, computers ... a total of 30 trillion Tons of stuff. Source
  4. What environmental changes have been made since humans settled?
    • How have humans changed and built on Earth? houses, malls, factories, farms, cities, roads, airports and shipping ports ...
    • What artifacts do humans add to the environment? All our stuff. 30 trillion tons ...
    • What habitats, communities do humans add or change? cities, farms, ranches, houses, apartments, skyscrapers, shopping malls, zoos, game preserves, barns, parks, national parks, state parks, ...
    • What human activities affect the environment? Everything we do.
  5. Ask students for their reasons for where they put humans on their model. Compare their placements to the placements on 1c. Humans are living organisms and should be in the trapezoid as living and in either animal or plant consumers or both depending on what their diet is.
  6. Are all human needs for survival, good health, and good living provided through nature? Yes, in a healthy environment. However, there are environments or ecosystems do not provide enough for humans to survive. South Sudan 2017.

Activity 1d

  1. After students understand information on lab sheet 1c tell them to list human created artifacts or altered habitats to the model of nature and information to answer this questions.
    1. How have humans changed nature? By changing the amounts and quality of the environmental factors (air, water, soil, ...) and cycles (water cycle, energy cycle, nitrogen cycle, ...) and the numbers and health of organisms. Virtually everything on the Nature Model.

Expansion

Activity: 1e Environmental Variables

  1. Use lab sheet 1d to review changes humans have made to environments.
  2. Answer the questions.
    1. What makes a healthy environment? Enough resources available (as environmental factors and necessary organisms) so the different cycles work to create a healthy environment that includes the necessary environmental factors and organisms or other organisms attain what is necessary for good health.
    2. What are the most significant variables, in a model of nature, that can be used to measure environmental health? air, water, earth, human health, social. See below ...
  3. Use student lists from the above and discuss if all the following categories are included. If not discuss the importance of each and the necessity that each be in a list of most significant variables, in a model of nature, that can be used to measure environmental health. It's not necessary that all agree as to the necessity of some items in number six.
    1. Air
    2. Water
    3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat)
    4. Energy
    5. Human health
    6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment

Scoring guide

Top level

  • Students identify at least six environmental health variables (air, water, earth [food, shelter, habitat, transportation], human health, & social) and explain how three interactions of living organisms and nonliving environmental factors (water cycle, oxygen - carbon dioxide cycle, energy (food) cycle, nitrogen cycle, ... ) have created a kind of balance (homeostasis).

Lower level

  • Students identify less than six environmental health variables (air, water, earth [food, shelter, habitat, transportation], human health, & social) and mention three interactions of living organisms and nonliving environmental factors (water cycle, oxygen - carbon dioxide cycle, energy (food) cycle, nitrogen cycle, ... ) are related to a kind of balance (homeostasis).

Activity 2 - Accidental Environmental Health Disasters

Materials:

Focus questions:

  1. In general how do humans affect environmental health?
  2. How have humans changed environments on the Earth?
  3. How have changes humans made to nature helped, limited, or hurt their health?

Suggested procedures overview:

  1. Put students in groups, focus their attention, and assess their initial understanding of the first three focus questions.
  2. Review the first three focus questions and discuss them. Include mention of the six environmental health variables as appropriate.
  3. Review some of the Environmental impacts of humans with nature and the affects on health.
  4. Have students in pairs or triads select one item from the Environmental impacts of humans with nature and the affects on health list to investigate and report to the class.
  5. Students report.
  6. Facilitate student's understanding of our needs for survival, good health, and good living provided through nature will affect the quality of the environment negatively, which can be good at times, but if the environment isn't able to recover, it can be bad.
  7. Review the focus questions.

Exploration

  1. Put students in groups, focus their attention, and assess their initial understanding of the first three focus questions. Do not discuss the focus questions with the class. Move on to the Invention and discuss them after the Environmental impacts of humans ... activity.
    1. In general how do humans affect environmental health?
    2. How have humans changed environments on the Earth?
    3. How have changes humans made to nature helped, limited, or hurt their health?

Invention

  1. Review the first three focus questions and include the six environmental variables as appropriate: 1. Air 2. Water 3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat) 4. Energy 5. Human health 6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment
    1. In general how do humans affect environmental health? Humans can affect environmental health in three ways: Improve it, decrease it, or have no affect.
    2. How have humans changed environments on the Earth? Earth's environments often attain a balance so the organisms can live in a sort of equilibrium. People who lived many thousand years ago and survived as hunters and gatherers were able to do so as long as their numbers were small enough so the animals and plants were able to survive the people's harvest (EARTH - food production, SOCIAL - hunting, herding, farming). As people increased over hunting could create unhealthy environments and may have caused the extinction of animals (mammoth and aurochs) (EARTH - food production, SOCIAL - hunting, herding, farming). As people increased in numbers their use of water and land could deplete their availability (lack of WATER desertification, over grazing of animals, soil erosion, land, EARTH ... ) sufficiently to sustain people in a particular environment. As people increased their numbers the elimination of their wastes became a health problem (sanitation for the disposal of garbage, human waste, animal waste, chemical waste, solid waste, ... (AIR - smell, WATER, EARTH - land)).
    3. How have changes humans made to nature helped, limited, or hurt their health? Hunting can decrease animal populations to sustain or decrease those populations. A healthy animal population will provide a healthy food supply (EARTH - food) which will be healthy for humans. Similarly humans land use for animal herds and farming can conserve land and water or deplete land or water which will directly affect human health relative to food that can be harvested (WATER, EARTH - food, SOCIAL organize for irrigation, waste removal). Adding chemicals to the environment at a rate that can be decomposed without overwhelming a healthy environment will also be healthy for humans (HUMAN HEALTH, AIR, WATER, EARTH - LAND). Or chemicals that will not decompose (plastic, some pesticides, ... ) or in quantities that will not decompose in a timely fashion (fertilizers, coal ash, exhaust, ...) will make the the environment unhealthy which will be unhealthy for humans (HUMAN HEALTH, AIR, WATER, EARTH - LAND, SOCIAL).
  2. Either display or give a copy to students of the Environmental impacts of humans with nature and the affects on health fact sheet, have them review it, and select one of the items on the list to investigate.
  3. Assign students to pairs or triads.
  4. Tell them their investigation should be limited to two minutes. It should include the information on the list, pictures, effects on any of the six environmental health variables (1. Air 2. Water 3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat) 4. Energy 5. Human health 6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment), locating on a map where the event took place, and any other interesting and relevant information.
  5. Investigate
  6. Students report ... Encourage students to take notes. May require 3 or more written.
  7. Facilitate student's understanding of our needs for survival, good health, and good living provided through nature and the positive and negative affects they have on the quality of the environment. Negative affects, when small, can, usually be over come by the environment in time. However, large changes will take longer to recover from and in some cases may not be possible (animal extinctions, desertification, ...
  8. Summary questions
    1. From all the reports. Select a substance (oil, chemicals, food, water, air ...) or event (war, weather, nature ...) that affects the environment, describe positive and negative changes the substance provides humans, and explain how each has helped or hampered human survival, health, and quality of life?
      • Nuclear energy, bomb, radiation - provided energy in nuclear power plants, nuclear medicine, and understanding nuclear physics. Questionable if provided security from wars. Negative would be those killed in Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and others killed and made ill with radiation from nuclear testing and accidents.
      • Chemicals have been used to create products that make life easier, better, or more healthy. Accidental spills or other disasters have killed and harmed humans and polluted the environment. Environments may be cleaned and in time return to a more healthy situation depending on the type of chemical.
    2. How do we decide environmental health issues? Since we may never be able to be 100% sure on the environmental impact human actions may have on the environment and ultimately on human health we must constantly ask questions and collecting information about the environmental quality. Particularly the six variables important for survival. (1. Air 2. Water 3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat) 4. Energy 5. Human health 6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
    3. What has happened historically when people ignore the health of the environment? In the prehistoric times much of the time things went on as usual with normal seasonal changes and fluctuation of animal and plant populations. At times there could be severe weather, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and other natural disasters. As population increased and people grouped together in cities there could be agricultural related crises that led to extreme failures and possible mass starvation.

Scoring guide

Top level

  • Includes name of situation, reason of situation, consequences, pictures or video clip, mentioned relative environmental variables, location on map, and other interesting information within two minutes.

Lower level

  • Includes three of the following: name of situation, reason of situation, consequences, pictures or video clip, mentioned relative environmental variables, location on map, and other interesting information within two minutes.

Activity 3 - Historical Decisions with Positive & Negative Environmental Impacts

Materials:

Focus questions:

  1. What kinds of decisions were made that led to environmental disasters?
  2. What variables did you use to determine environmental health?

Suggested procedures overview:

  1. Ask the focus questions.
  2. Review information and discuss the focus questions.

Exploration

  1. Put students in groups and have them discuss the focus questions.
    1. What kinds of decisions were made that led to environmental disasters?
    2. What variables did you use to determine environmental health?

Invention

  1. Bring the class together and briefly review the focus questions and assess student's understanding of the focus questions.
    1. What kinds of decisions were made that led to environmental disasters?
      • Didn't think an accident would happen.
      • Prepared for an accident, but weren't ready for such a catastrophe.
      • Didn't prepare for an accident.
      • Didn't think anything bad would happen.
      • Continued to do what they had done previously thinking it would continue to work.
      • Thought there would possibly be a minimal impact or the environment would repair itself.
    2. What variables did you use to determine environmental health? Answers vary. Write students variables so the class can see them and begin to group them, as possible, into the six categories that the variables are grouped on the Environmental health variables and human impacts - fact sheet - continue below.
  1. Provide students with the Environmental health variables and human impacts - fact sheet.
  2. Ask students to compare their list of variables to those on the fact sheet.
  3. Review each of the six categories so students understand what is included in each category. If there are items students have that aren't included, decide where they should be categorized.
  4. Tell students they will be using this fact sheet and the environmental health model to analyze different decisions and their effects on the environment.
  5. Share the Historical Decisions & their affects on environment health - Fact sheet -
  6. Tells students they can choose one of the events on the fact sheet or make one of their own. Then identify decisions people made or could have made and what they anticipated or might have anticipated the impacts on environmental health.
  7. Tell students to use the Environmental health variables and human impacts - fact sheet - to help them with their exploration by considering each of the six variables and asking if there might be positive and negative impacts related to their decision.
  8. In groups, have students select one of the historical decisions from the fact sheet or one they have identified to investigate.
  9. Have students investigate
  10. Report to class

Historical decision: Steam engine

Identify and describe the positive and negative impacts implementation of the decision has on environmental health.

  1. Air
    Positive
    None
    Negative
    Burned coal and released particulate matter into the air.
  2. Water
    Positive
    None
    Negative
    Used water to make steam and released it into streams hotter and dirtier than before it was used. Ash and slag could pollute water if released into it.
  3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat)
    Positive
    Shelter - increased cloth to use for protection and warmth
    Negative
    Burned coal released as ash, slag, and particulate matter that was dumped or settled on earth.
  4. Energy
    Positive
    Increase in the amount of work that can be done. Free up people to do other jobs.
    Negative
    Made jobs more mundane and boring.
  5. Human health
    Positive
    Free up people to do other jobs.
    Negative
    Particulate matter in the air cause lung, heart, and other problems.
  6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment
    Positive
    Free up people to do other jobs.
    Negative
  7. Polluted air and water made the environment around the factory less delightful. Made jobs more mundane and boring.

 

Expansion

So how do we make decisions to maintain an environment to sustain our civilization?

Scoring guide

Top level

  • Selected a decision and described reasonable positive and negative effects on environmental health for each variable that was or wasn't effected by the decision.

Lower level

  • Selected a decision and described some negative effects on environmental health effected by the decision.

Activity 4 - Making healthy environmental decisions

Materials:

  1. Activity 4 Lab notes
  2. Resources for students to use with their investigations
  3. Overview of the Nine step decision making process
  4. Blank circular worksheet for a 9 Step Decision Making Cycle
  5. Outline version of 9 Step Decision Making Process
  6. Circles of Influence Diagram - fact sheet - with categories
  7. Blank Circles of influence diagram

Focus questions:

  1. How do we understand the impact people's decisions have environments?
  2. How do people use a comprehensive view to make environmental decisions?
  3. What influences affect environmental decisions?
  4. How do we analyze environmental issues to make healthy decisions?

Suggested procedures overview:

  1. Put students in groups, focus their attention, and assess their initial understanding of the focus questions.
  2. Have students select a topic (activity, product, necessity, situation ... ) identify environmental consequences related to the topic, use a nine step decision making process to identify possible solutions, environmental health consequences, and recommend a decision.
  3. Use the Circles of Influence to determine what influences: self, social, and objects limit or empower people to make healthy environmental decisions.
  4. Devise a plan how to inform others.

Exploration

Distribute activity 4 Lab notes

  1. Put students into groups and have them discuss the focus questions.
    1. How do we understand the impact people's decisions have environments?
    2. How do people use a comprehensive view to make environmental decisions?
    3. What influences affect environmental decisions?
    4. How do we analyze environmental issues to make healthy decisions?

Invention

  1. After students discuss the focus questions in groups review them.
    1. How do we understand the impact people's decisions have on environments? We understand how environments change through experience and experimentation. Understanding developed with years of observing and recording how organisms interactions with other organisms and environmental factors. Then use that information to create explanations and models to make predictions.
    2. How do people use a comprehensive view to make environmental decisions?Through understanding and Nature and the variables essential for life and how interactions can be healthy or unhealthy.
    3. What influences affect environmental decisions? Self, social, and objects.
    4. How do we analyze environmental issues to make healthy decisions? Understand Nature and essential variables to make better decisions with a decision making process that provides for an honest comprehensive analysis of a situation and consider how influences affect the process.
  2. Tell students they are going to select something they are interested in to investigate the ways that it affects the environment and make suggestions on how to increase environmental health or reduce negative environmental impacts like pollution
    1. What kind of car to buy? kind of fuel, size, mpg, ...
    2. What kind of house to buy or build?
    3. What kind of furnace? natural gas, wood stove, electric, coal, ...
    4. What will be my diet? meat, vegan, vegetarian, organic, inorganic, ...
    5. What will I do to protect my indoor air use? furnace and air conditioning filters, temperature, humidity, smokeless, incense, ventilation, mold, mildew, pollen,
    6. What will determine my water use? source of potable drinking water , shower, bath, brush teeth, wash car, lawn irrigation, Rain runoff from lawns, streets, roads, parking lots,
    7. How will I farm or support farmers? organic, GMO, hormones in meat, free range, feedlot runoff ..
    8. How will I determine my electricity use? electronic deices, appliances, lights, incandescent, florescent, LED, candle, oil,
    9. What will I do with my solid waste? recycle, land fill, sewage
    10. How will I protect myself outdoors? sunburn, mosquitoes, lice, fleas, tics, hydration, warmth, frost bite,
    11. How will I advocate for healthy environments among friends, family, ... the world?
    12. How to advocate for humane treatment of animals?
    13. How to advocate for protection of endangered species?
    14. How do I spend my money in an environmental healthy manner?
    15. Is it Healthier to Remove Your Shoes at Home?
  3. Select a topic ...
  4. Before your group investigates on your own, let's review the 9 steps for the purchase of a vehicle. Example matches outline in Activity 4 lab notes.

Nine steps decision making for environmental health decisions

Topic: Vehicle (car or truck) purchase...

Ask and discussion each decision making step for the topic.

  1. Focus on making a decision and enter a good frame of mind:
    • Remind myself not to go with your gut and not to react without thinking.
    • Decide on decision making steps. For example, 9 step process. Sample circular worksheet: Focus desire of a positive process, identify a problem, collect information, analyze the information, generate options or choices, consider consequences, make a decision, implement, evaluate.
    • Identify who can assist or influence the decision making process and determine if their help or influence would lead to success or block success.
    • Remember to care about the dignity and worth of others during the process by listening to discover their views and explanations so as to avoid confusion or intimidation while assisting understanding and directing the decision making process so it will be beneficial for me, others, and the Earth.
  2. Identify and describe the problem or opportunity:
    • State the problem in a simple singular question or statement.
      • Simple questions: Should I buy a car or truck? What kind of car (or truck) should I buy? What do I like? What do I need more? What would provide more opportunities?
    • State a more complicated question or problem that includes your top priorities.
      • For example. Priorities: Transportation, cost, quality, environment...
      • What vehicle will provide the transportation I need in the best combination of being economical (cost & quality) and environmentally healthy?
  3. Gather information related to the problem or opportunity:
    • Identify related past experiences.
      • What have I ridden in most? What did and do my relatives and friends drive?
    • List advantages and disadvantages
      • Make a list of desirable points to consider and rate for each vehicle.
      • Put the name of each possible vehicle at the top of a list. Then, research and rate each point.
      • Identify resources for research: parents, friends, Consumer reports, Blue book, salespeople, ... and gather information such as:
        • Initial cost, interest rate, payments, fuel mpg, upkeep costs, insurance rates,
        • Review the materials used to make the vehicle. Durability ...
        • Identify safety features. - air bags, anti-lock brake system, rear view camera, emergency braking, anti skid control,
        • Other categories would depend on preferences or the variety of vehicles considered. For example if trucks and cars were were both considered instead of all cars or all trucks, then different categories might be needed. Such as:
          • easy to drive (cars are usually easier because mostly they are smaller and easier to park while trucks are larger and harder to drive and park)
          • number of passengers and passenger space
          • truck cab size Vs. cargo bed size Vs. size of vehicle
          • family friendly
          • luggage inside not outside
          • seating comfort
          • visibility (lower to the ground harder to see)
          • cargo space
          • power for towing, hauling, and off road
          • engine power
          • durability
      • Review the information and when you are satisfied it is comprehensive enough, move to analysis.
  4. Analysis of information gathered
    • Identify who can assist or influence the analysis and lead to success or block success.
    • Decide what information is relevant and accurate. Eliminate bias and opinion.
      • Review the list for each vehicle cross inaccurate, biased, and other unhelpful information.
      • Rate each vehicle in each column (3-best, 2-ok, 1not good) or rate each vehicle from top to bottom.
  5. Generate a variety of possible options or choices
    • List different choices. Recall from past experience and listening to others.
    • Be creative and positive.
      • Select top two rated vehicles.
  6. Generate consequences for all options or choices
    • Summarize and list all possible options or choices.
    • Identify positive and adverse consequences for each option or choice. In other words: what opportunities or problems might each solution create?
    • Summarize positive and negative consequences for each option.
    • Communicate the main idea and consequences of each option with examples. Check for accurate communication of all facts, definitions, relationships, counter examples, and other necessary descriptive information.
      • Use the list generated for the top two vehicle ratings and list positive and negatives for each.
  7. Evaluate and decide on an option and process for implementation
    • Check the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the consequences for each choice or option and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and desirability of each.
    • Judge the credibility of the expertise of people used as sources, or any conflict of interest, if there is agreement or corroboration among sources, and if there is a bias effect based on their reputations.
    • Check the accuracy of the procedures used to derive reason and explanation.
    • Check the quality of reasoning, logic, and explanations. See reasoning and proof explanations and example.
    • Determine the risks of making or not making this decision and the probability of success.
    • Determine what criteria should be used to judge and evaluate each option. Could create a matrix and assign a value for each criteria to summarize and review.
    • Decide which alternative might best achieve your goals.
      • Decide to shop for the top two and see what opportunities are available.
  8. Implement the decision.
    • Implement the decision.
    • Allocated resources to implement.
    • Gain acceptance and support of all stake holders and colleagues.
    • Decide how to periodically check to see if everyone is still committed to making the decision work.
      • Shop for the best deal and buy...
  9. Evaluate the implementation: Review and decide to continue with the implementation, alter it, or stop it and try again.
  1. Let students select their topic, investigate, and complete a 9 step decision making process in outline format or the circular format.
  2. Step four of the decision making process is analysis of information gathered, which includes an analysis of influences on the information collected. To decide what is fact or fiction, fact or opinion, biased or impartial so information used is accurate and relevant.
  3. Review the categories of influence on the Circles of Influence Diagram.
  4. Identify influences in each category for purchase of a vehicle. The examples are general, but students should be encouraged to make specific ones based on their experiences.
    • Self influences: personal choice in types of vehicle and need to be responsible.
      • Like a comfortable seat that is high enough to be able to see the road.
      • I want to be environmentally responsible so want it to get good MPG.
    • Social influences: trusted - parents opinion, consumer reports, blue book quotes, mechanics,
      • Dad thinks I should get a ...
      • Consumer report says safest is ...
      • Price of ...
    • Social influences: questionable -
      • Television ad that has people list all the awards won by ...
      • Endorsement by famous people. Rock in Ford commercial holding tires.
      • NASCAR ... cars that win ...
      • Vehicles in movies and other video,
      • Newspaper ads for specific vehicle ...
      • Magazine pictures, )
      • Friends
      • Salespeople
    • Object influences:
      • Style of vehicle ...
      • Quality of vehicle
      • Seats
      • Instrument panel
      • Storage
      • Tires
      • Color
      • Media available
      • GPS
    • Control review idea in the focus on decision making step one to stay on track.
  5. Have students use the Circles of influence diagram in the lab notes. to complete for their own topic.
  6. Beside each influence mark them as positive (+) or negative (-).

Scoring guide

Top level.

  • The decision making process includes information in each category (focus, problem, information, analysis, possibilities, consequences, decision, implementation, & evaluation) that necessary and sufficient to make a decision to solve a problem related to environmental health. Influences are considered with at least two specific details for each of the four influences in the circles of influence.

Lower level

  • The decision making process is missing information in one or more categories (focus, problem, information, analysis, possibilities, consequences, decision, implementation, & evaluation) or the information is not necessary or sufficient to make a decision to solve a problem related to environmental health. Influences are missing or do not include at least two specific details for each of the four influences in the circles of influence.

Activity 5 Implement decisions for environmental health

Materials:

  1. Previous lab notes and fact sheets
  2. Lab notes page 5

Focus questions:

  1. Review. What have we learned about environmental health?
  2. How do we make environmentally healthy decisions?
  3. What obligation, beyond our own health, do we have when we make decisions related to the environment?
  4. What goals can I set for a healthy environment and why?
  5. What can I do to achieve my goals?

Suggested procedures overview:

  1. Decide if students will work individually or in groups. If groups, decide group size and put students in groups, focus their attention, and assess their initial understanding of the focus questions and have them set their own goals and actions.
  2. Devise a plan how to inform others.
  3. Share with class
  4. Review and discuss summary questions.

Exploration

  1. Review. What have we learned about environmental health? Answers vary ...
  2. How do we make environmentally healthy decisions? It is important to use a decision making process as environments are complicated and it is hard to know what decisions are best.
  3. What obligation, beyond our own health, do we have when we make decisions related to the environment? As a member of the human race we have an obligation for all of humanity to make decisions that benefit other humans and life on Earth.
  4. What goals can I set for a healthy environment and why? Answers vary
    • Use hygiene that is environmentally responsible. Use soap that doesn't have antibiotics (too many antibiotics makes bacteria resistant) and is environmentally friendly (biodegradable). Take quick showers (save water and energy). Turn water off when brushing teeth (save water and energy). ...
    • Research consumer products I buy and my family to suggest what is environmentally better (Use less energy, save water, better air quality, less trash, less hazardous materials, ...).
    • Donate time to ...
    • Advocate for no keystone pipeline or for why one is needed to protect the environment.
    • Other ...
  5. What can I do to achieve my goals? Answers vary

Invention

  1. Have students answer... What recommendations and suggestions can you make to convince people to make environmentally healthy decisions? As students share their suggestions ask how they believe their suggestion will help ...
  2. Group students by the kinds of recommendations and suggestions they are considering so they can work in groups to make a presentation.
  3. Remind students to include with their recommendations how they believe they will be healthy for the environment.
  4. Have students make a poster, short video, or editorial to convince people they should change and implement an environmentally healthy solution.
  5. Have students share their presentations. Encourage students to question each presentation on how it will work or not and if recommendations are effective and why or why not.

 

Scoring guide

Top level.

  • Presentation suggests understanding of the complexity of environmental health, includes realistic goals for healthy environmental effects, and suggests ideas, procedures, and explanations on how their recommendations could achieve their goals.

Lower level

  • Presentation is limited to a singular idea related to environmental health, includes realistic goal for a healthy environmental effect, and suggests a procedure to achieve their goals. Omits explanation on how their recommendations could achieve their goals.

Lab Notes for activities and Data Sheets

Brainstorming rules
  • Accept all suggestions (no criticism).
  • Free wheeling or hitch-hiking is allowed and encouraged.
  • Generate a large number of ideas.
  • Combinations and improvements are sought.
  • Everyone says their idea out loud and each writes their own ideas.
  • The wilder the idea the better.

Activity 1a - Brainstorm a Nature Model

  1. What is nature?
  2. What sustains life on Earth?
  3. What are environmental factors?
  4. What relationships are in nature?
  5. What is the relationship of organisms in nature?
  6. What is the purpose of organisms in nature?
Blank nature model

Activity 1b - Developing a Nature Model with humans and their needs

  1. Use this model of nature and add humans and their needs to this model of nature.
  2. How are human needs for survival, good health, and good living provided through nature?
  3. What makes a health environment?
  4. What are significant variables in a model of nature?
Blank nature model

Activity 1c - Developing a Model of Humans & environmental changes

  1. How are human needs for survival, good health, and good living provided through nature? Use this model of nature and human needs and add human environmental changes.
Blank nature model

Activity 1d - Model for environmental health

  1. What makes a health environment?
  2. What are the most significant variables, in a model of nature, that can be used to measure environmental health?
Blank nature model

Activity 1e - Environmental Variables

Discussion questions:

  1. What makes a health environment?
  2.  

     

     

     

     

  3. What are the most significant variables, in a model of nature, that can be used to measure environmental health?
  4.  

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  5. How do the variables in your list fit with the variables in the following list?

       

    1. Air
    2.  

    3. Water
    4.  

    5. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat)
    6.  

    7. Energy
    8.  

    9. Human health
    10.  

    11. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment

Activity 2 - Environmental Health Disasters

Discussion questions:

  1. In general how do humans affect environmental health?
  2.  

     

     

     

  3. How have humans changed environments on the Earth?
  4.  

     

     

     

     

  5. How have changes humans made to nature helped, limited, or hurt their health?
  6.  

     

     

     

Disaster investigation.

Select a historical incident to investigate and prepare a short report: Include the information on the list, pictures, effects on any of the six environmental health variables (1. Air 2. Water 3. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat) 4. Energy 5. Human health 6. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment), locating on a map where the event took place, and any other interesting and relevant information.

My incident checklist

  • Includes information on the list
  • Pictures or video
  • Mentions six environmental health variables as appropriate
  • Located on a map
  • Other interesting or relevant information.
  • Presentation is less than 2 minutes

My Notes:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes from presentations:

Interesting incident #1 notes.

 

 

 

Interesting incident #2 notes.

 

 

 

 

Interesting incident #3 notes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

  1. From all the reports. Select a substance (oil, chemicals, food, water, air ...) or event (war, weather, nature ...) that affects the environment, describe positive and negative changes the substance provides humans, and explain how each has helped or hampered human survival, health, and quality of life?
  2.  

     

     

     

     

     

  3. How do we decide environmental health issues?
  4.  

     

     

     

     

  5. What has happened historically when people ignore the health of the environment?

 

 

 

 

Activity 3 - Historical Events with Positive & Negative Environmental Impacts

Discussion questions:

  1. What kinds of decisions were made that led to environmental disasters?
  2.  

     

     

  3. What variables did you use to determine environmental health?
  4.  

     

     

Historical decision:

Identify and describe the positive and negative impacts implementation of the decision has on environmental health.

  1. Air
    Positive


    Negative

  2.  

  3. Water
    Positive


    Negative

  4.  

  5. Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat)
    Positive


    Negative

  6.  

  7. Energy
    Positive


    Negative

  8.  

  9. Human health
    Positive


    Negative

  10.  

  11. Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment
    Positive


    Negative

So how do we make decisions to maintain an environment to sustain our civilization?

Activity 4 - Making healthy environmental decisions

  1. How do we understand the impact people's decisions have environments?
  2.  

     

     

     

     

  3. How do people use a comprehensive view to make environmental decisions?
  4.  

     

     

     

     

  5. What influences affect environmental decisions?
  6.  

     

     

     

     

  7. How do we analyze environmental issues to make healthy decisions?

 

 

 

 

 

Decision making for environmental health decisions

Topic:

Nine Step Decision Making Process & Critical Thinking

Ask and discussion each focus question related to your topic?

  1. Focus on making a decision and enter a good frame of mind:
    • Remind myself not to go with my gut and not to react without thinking.
    • Identify decision making steps (9 step process) and identify each step. Use an outline format or a circular format.
    • Identify who can assist or influence the decision making process and determine if their help or influence would lead to success or block success and be determined not to be negatively influenced.
    • Remember to care about the dignity and worth of others during the process by listening to discover their views and explanations so as to avoid confusion or intimidation while assisting understanding and directing the decision making process so it will be beneficial for me, others, and the Earth.

     

  2. Identify and describe the problem or opportunity:
    • State the problem in a simple singular question or statement.

     

    • State a more complicated question or problem that includes your top priorities.

     

  3. Gather information related to the problem or opportunity:
    • Identify related past experiences.

     

    • List advantages and disadvantages.

     

  4. Analysis of information gathered
    • Identify who can assist or influence (personal, social, & objects) the analysis and lead to success or block success.
    • Decide what information is relevant and accurate. Eliminate bias and opinion.

     

  5. Generate a variety of possible options or choices
    • List different choices. Recall from past experience and listening to others.
    • Be creative and positive.

     

  6. Generate consequences for all options or choices
    • Summarize and list all possible options or choices.
    • Identify positive and adverse consequences for each option or choice. In other words: what opportunities or problems might each solution create?
    • Summarize positive and negative consequences for each option.
    • Communicate the main idea and consequences of each option with examples. Check for accurate communication of all facts, definitions, relationships, counter examples, and other necessary descriptive information.

     

  7. Evaluate and decide on an option and process for implementation
    • Check the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the consequences for each choice or option and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and desirability of each.
    • Judge the credibility of the expertise of people used as sources, or any conflict of interest, if there is agreement or corroboration among sources, and if there is a bias effect based on their reputations.
    • Check the accuracy of the procedures used to derive reason and explanation.
    • Check the quality of reasoning, logic, and explanations. See reasoning and proof explanations and example.
    • Determine the risks of making or not making this decision and the probability of success.
    • Determine what criteria should be used to judge and evaluate each option. Could create a matrix and assign a value for each criteria to summarize and review.
    • Decide which alternative might best achieve your goals.

     

  8. Implement the decision.
    • Implement the decision.
    • Allocated resources to implement.
    • Gain acceptance and support of all stake holders and colleagues.
    • Decide how to periodically check to see if everyone is still committed to making the decision work.
    •  

       

       

  9. Evaluate the implementation: Review and decide to continue with the implementation, alter it, or stop it and try again.

 

 

 

Circles of Influence work sheet for environmental health

Review the examples of influence used in a Circles of influence diagram - fact sheet, then identify sources of influences that might affect the health of the environment with the choices people make related to your selected issue and add them in the appropriate place below.

Blank circles of interest

Beside each influence mark them as positive (+) or negative (-).

 

Activity 5

Summary

  1. Review. What have we learned about environmental health?
  2.  

     

     

  3. How do we make environmentally healthy decisions?
  4.  

     

     

  5. What obligation, beyond our own health, do we have when we make decisions related to the environment?
  6.  

     

     

  7. What goals can I set for a healthy environment?
  8.  

     

     

  9. What can I do to achieve my goals?
  10.  

     

     

What recommendations and suggestions can you make to convince people to make environmentally healthy decisions?

 

 

 

Make a poster, short video, or editorial to convince people they should change and implement a solution.

 

 

Fact Sheets

Blank Nature Model - Fact sheet -

Nature  model

Nature Model - Fact sheet -

Nature  model

Nature and Human Model - Fact sheet -

Nature with humans model

Nature and Human Changes Model - Fact sheet -

Nature with humans model

Environmental disasters and the affects
- Fact sheet -

Now and through history humans seek and build healthy environments to provide necessary resources to survive and thrive. At times it has been a struggle for individuals, families, tribes, communities, communities, cities governments, states, nations, leagues of nations, world trade organizations, global treaties, and many other organizations in different combinations to insure their survival, good health, and better living.

While humans have survived and thrived (as determined by the 7+ billion humans on Earth) there have been setbacks with wars, natural disasters, crop failures, exterminations, extinctions, desertification, environmental disasters, and other catastrophes. We need to recognize peoples' demands sometimes exceed what the environment is capable of producing to sustain people in those environments. This can result in the fall of a civilization or the necessity to migrate from an unhealthy environment for those able to leave and find resources elsewhere.

Some civilizations we know failed:

  • Akkadian Empire,
  • Hittite Empire,
  • Minoan settlements on Crete 2700-1450 B.C.E. Weakened by earthquake and maybe conquered by outside forces Source
  • A massive settlement that is today submerged beneath the Aegean Sea. Structures found date to around 2600-2500 B.C.E. Rising sea levels or earthquake. Source
  • Egypt, pyramids of Giza built between 2600-2500 B.C.E.
  • Mycenaean Greece, 2700-1200 B.C.E.
  • Assyrian Empire in the Indus Valley,
  • Angkor/Khmer Empire in Cambodia,
  • Han and Tang Dynasty of China,
  • Western Roman Empire,
  • Maya,
  • Olmec,
  • Mount Vesuvius volcano eruption 79 AD destroyed Pompeii and many of its inhabitants. Source
  • Extinct animals: White Rhinoceros, Passenger Pigeon, Aurochs, Elephant Bird, Great Auk, Imperial Woodpecker, Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Heath Hen, Labrodor duck, Dusky Seaside Sparrow, Dodo, Carolina Parakeet, Cuban Macaw, Quagga, Pyrenean ibux, Mastodon, Woolly mammoth, Mammoth, European bison, Saber-tooth tiger, Neanderthal, Tasmanian devil,

Modern environmental disasters

  • 1889, Johnstown, Pennsylvania flood. Caused by a weakened dam. It was the largest man made disaster, killing more than 2,200 people, in the United States before the September 11th attacks. Source
  • 1919, 1930, 1999, Vermiculite mines in Libby, Montana released asbestos dust that caused respiratory problems for the residents and continued until today. Source
  • 1917 - present. War and conflicts effects on the environment and human health. World Wars I, World War II, Africa, World Trade Centers, Afghanistan, Asia, Cambodia, Iraq, Kuwait, Israel Lebanon, Russia Chechnya, Vietnam. Source
  • Pittsburgh 1940's air quality.
  • 1948, in Donora, (on the Monongahela River, southeast of Pittsburgh) Pennsylvania a smog inversion killed 20 people and sickened thousands more. Source
  • 1952, smog in London for 5 days allowed airborne pollutant to form a thick layer of smog over the city. Research showed 12,000 premature deaths were attributed to this smog. Source
  • 1954, Castle Bravo thermonuclear hydrogen bomb test on Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. The most significant accidental radiological contamination ever caused by the United States. Source
  • 1956, Chisso Corporation’s industrial wastewater with methylmercury was discharged into Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea resulting in 2,265 fatalities and other health problems. Source
  • 1967+, Agent Orange and deforestation of jungles and cropland in Vietnam. Source
  • 1966, a USAF B-52G bomber crashed and exploded. The explosion caused plutonium contamination of Palomares, Spain. Traces of the blasts are still evident. Source
  • 1971, in Derweze, Turkmenistan, a drilling rig created a sink hole that was 70 meters in diameter and released methane gas, which geologists decided to burn to reduce the risk of methane on the environment. The gas is still burning today. Source
  • 1976, a chemical plant explosion in Seveso, Italy released Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) killing and sickening animals and caused skin lesions on residents. Source
  • 1978, Amoco Cadiz ship broke apart and sank releasing its cargo of crude oil and fuel oil off the coast of Brittany, France. Source
  • Love Canal. Canal, waste site, school and single family home site, super site, (1892, 1955, 1978, ... ) Source
  • 1979, Three mile island accident partial nuclear meltdown of a nuclear reactors in Pennsylvania. Source
  • 1984, the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant’s in Bhopal, India leaked poisonous gases (ethyl isocyanate gas and others) killing 2,259 and causing other health problems. Source
  • 1986 Chernobyl, Russia is the worst nuclear power plant incident in history. Causing cancer, deformities, and other long term illnesses on human and animal inhabitants. Source
  • 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska. Source
  • 1989, Phillips 66 chemical complex series of explosions and fire in Pasadena, Texas where 23 employees were killed and 314 were injured. Source
  • 1991, Kuwaiti oil fires during the Persian Gulf war. Source
  • 2001, AFZ chemical fertilizer factory explosion in Toulouse, France killing 29 and injuring thousands of others. Source
  • 2003, a sulfur plant fire in Mosul, Iraq, burned for about 3 weeks and released approximately 42 million pounds of sulfur dioxide (SO2) per day and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Source
  • 2004 Banda Aceh earthquake and tsunami in Sumatra, a magnitude-9.1, killed more than 230,000 people. Source
  • 2008, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant where a retaining wall failed, releasing approximately 5.4 million cubic feet of coal ash into rivers and onto ground surfaces. A mud flow that damaged properties downhill and contained arsenic, selenium, and mercury. Source
  • 2010, Deep Water Horizon explosion, oil rig collapse, and oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Source
  • 2011, Japan Earthquake & Tsunami. Killing about 15,891 most by drowning. Tsunami waves reached up to 128 feet high above sea level at Miyako city and traveled 6 miles inland at Sendai. It flooded about 217 square miles in Japan. Waves over topped and destroyed protective tsunami seawalls, three-story buildings, generated a huge offshore whirlpool, and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant exposing about 65,000 people living near the plant. Source
  • 2015, In Bento Rodrigues, Brazil a dam where millions of tons of toxic mine waste (tailings) were stored collapsed. Source
  • 2015, Gold King Mine waste water spill near Silverton, Colorado. Source
  • Ebola outbreak March 2014- January 2016. 11,315 died with 28,637 cases reported. Source
  • The Pacific Gyre Garbage Patch in the central North Pacific Ocean. Source
  • Gulf of Mexico’s dead zone at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Caused by the high concentration of chemicals, like nitrogen and phosphorus, which are two of the many chemical run offs from central continental America. Source
  • Guiyu, China was the first and probably the largest electronic waste (e-waste) site on earth. 88% of the children in the area suffer from lead poisoning and other diseases. The area is refereed to as the electronic graveyard. In 2015 it was shut down and e-waste was redirected to new sites. Source
  • The Aral Sea once a part of the fourth largest inland body of water is now mostly a plain of highly saline soil. Source
  • Natures Yosemite National Park video ...

 

Environmental health variables and human impacts

The condition of environmental health is complicated. Earth is a global natural environment with many local environments of all sizes and boundaries that overlap other local environments. Additionally humans have built environments of different sizes which can be isolated from natural environments and contained within natural environments.

This makes environmental health, which is complicated to start with, even more difficult to understand. Even with a lot of study one can never be sure of a complete understanding. However, environmental health depends on decisions people make. Individual and collective actions between, and among people and the environment. Decisions on materials, ideas, strategies, policies, and technologies used to survive and create our ideas (philosophies) of a good life determines our environmental health.

To believe an action will have no major affect or not to consider one, could be devastating. Therefore, people need to consider many variables when making decisions. Any change to one variable may have a small effect or one large enough to cause the extinction of one or more organisms. Therefore, deciding variables to consider is essential and must be extensive so as not to omit one that may be important. Even then different people will interpret and apply them differently.

The following list of variables is created for the purpose of making better decisions for healthy environments.

Air, Water, Earth - Food production, transportation, shelter (temperature and habitat), Energy, Human health, and Social: education, economics, government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), entertainment.

While the information is classified into categories we should remember all of the categories overlap, interact, and affect each other.

1. Air quality variables and affects

  • Outdoor environment and health
    • Balanced atmosphere. oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen ...
    • Toxic chemicals such as methane, sulfur, carbon monoxide, smoke, second hand tobacco smoke, ozone depreciation, cadmium, arsenic, mercury,
    • UV exposure, other radiation see also energy
    • Greenhouse effect. Water, CO2, methane
    • Particulate matter inhaled by people. Smaller particles are the greatest threat to health because they travel deep within the lungs.
      • Carbon (soot) emitted by combustion sources;
      • Tiny liquid or solid particles in aerosols;
      • Fungal spores;
      • Dust
      • Pollen; and
      • A toxin present in bacteria (endotoxin).
    • Violent storms. Tornado, hurricane, thunder storms,wind, hail, ice
    • Altered precipitation, increased desert area, land degradation, lack of clean potable water, increased violent storms see also water and earth
  • Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment
    • Plants: trees, grasses, bushes, ocean plants, one celled plants
    • Particulate matter from burning, stoves, fireplaces, factories, ...
    • Wind erosion dust
    • CO2 (carbon dioxide) from plants photosynthesis, burning fuel
    • SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
    • Smoking bans and restrictions.
    • Prevention of exposure to exhausts from motor vehicles and other engines
    • Test new material and consumer products and labels on materials and consumer products.
    • Reduce toxic pollutants release into the environment:
    • Walk, bike, mass transit, car pool, electronic communication
    • Bicycle lanes
    • Turn off lights and electrical appliances when not in use
    • Reduce toxic and other detrimental emissions into the air: fuel efficient cars, pollution free cars
    • Storm protection from wind and rain, storm shelters
  • Indoor environment and health
    • Asphyxiation, cold, flu, respiratory infection, lung disease, lead, asthma, tuberculosis, lung cancers, carbon monoxide, pets, low birth weight, premature birth, birth trauma, heart disease,
    • Room air quality; building materials, ventilation, household products like furniture and electrical appliances, clean products and other household products, candles, scented products, smoke, second hand smoke, energy saving measures to reduce air flow from external source, dampness, mold, other biological agents has been linked to asthma and allergic symptoms, lung cancer, and other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
    • Reduce inside allergens: mold, pollen, animals, dust mites, dog, cat, cockroach, mouse,
    • Household air pollution and health. Source
      In a properly maintained home, most of the airborne particulate matter comes from the outside. However, some homes do have significant sources of indoor particulate matter which come from:
      • Cigarette smoke;
      • Cooking: especially frying and sautéing;
      • Combustion appliances: furnaces without a proper air filter;
      • Non-vented combustion appliances like gas stoves;
      • Wood-burning appliances wood stoves and fireplaces
      • Mold growth
      • Radon
  • Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment
    • Building ventilation to control exposure to particulate matter, allergens, ozone, radon, cooking, .
    • Prevention of moisture accumulation, mold growth,
    • Prevention of exposure to exhausts from indoor combustion (furnaces ... )
    • Test new material and consumer products and labels on materials and consumer products.
    • Designs for noise reduction

2. Water

  • Potable (safe to drink) water system
    • Contaminates. pathogens, lead, ...
  • Clean water can be maintained by limiting pollution of surface water, ground water, rivers, streams, lakes, oceans ...
    • Sanitation. Sewage system: organic waste from factories, animals, humans, ...
    • Chemicals in sewage, runoff, ... Chemicals: lead, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, pesticides, herbicides,
    • Prevent contamination of watersheds and water ways for recreational and other purposes.
    • Clean recreational water for swimming, boating, surfing, ...
    • Irrigation
    • Hygiene
    • Radiation
    • Erosion run off from wind, water, and
    • Conserve water use.
    • Altered precipitation, increase desert area, land degradation, lack of clean potable water, increased violent storms see also air and earth
  • Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment
    • Develop and monitor water systems to provide safe drinking water.
    • Conserve water use.
    • Maintain fresh water availability
    • Keep water free of fecal oral pathogens,
    • Consider water safety. Ways to prevent drowning, flood, drought, poisoning, oil spills, toxic chemicals: oil, lead mental retardation, mercury, cancers,
    • Use pesticides and herbicides in a safe responsible and limited manner
    • Have a plan for storage and disposal of hazardous materials at home, school, community spill, business, factories.
    • Use only environmentally friendly office cleaning and pest control chemicals
    • Malaria: Reduce standing water, drainage, manage water ways ...

Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment

  • Manage production to avoid shortages and starvation

3. Earth Land use, food production, soil management, erosion, conservation, habitat, housing, transportation, business, cities, ...

  • Volcanoes, earthquakes,
  • Agriculture, protein production,
    • Animal hunting, fishing, herding, farming, beef, chicken, turkey, fish, buffalo ...
    • Plants: wheat, rice, oats, corn, vegetables, fruit
    • Irrigation
  • Transportation: roads, rail, bus, cycling, cars, trucks, air travel, drones,
  • Space for living, exercise, recreation, temperature in buildings 68 in winter 78 summer, insulation
  • Housing, business, factories,
  • Soil quality. fertility, salt,
  • Animal care.
    • Farm animals: swine flu, avian or bird flu,
    • Household pets: rabies, heart-worm, fleas, ticks
    • Nature: ticks: Lyme disease, Babesiosis caused by Babesia microti from black legged tick, Rocky Mountain Spotted fever, Anaplasmosis, Colorado tick fever, Powassan encephalitis, Tularemia, Ehrlichiosis, Relapsing fever
  • Biodiversity, Loss of biodiversity
  • GMOs
  • GMO pollen spread by wind, water, animals.
  • Bacteria, virus, molds, allergens, pathogens, mosquitoes, ticks,
  • Animal waste, plant materials,
  • Environments that favor disease,
  • Chemicals use. Fertilizer (nitrogen increase algae, fish kill), methane
  • Travel related to spread of disease, invasive plants and animals into new territories.
  • Bio-warfare and bio-terror.

Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment

  • Reduce solid wastes
  • Conserve, Reuse, recycle
  • Recycle batteries
  • Use biodegradable products.
  • Radon mitigation
  • Plan for habitat, natural and constructed, structures, infrastructures, and surveillance (homes and communities), buildings, housing, work, business, recreational
  • Plan for land use
  • Ensure recycling bins are available and use recycled paper
  • Switching all standard paper from virgin to recycle.
  • Avoid the use of building materials from unsustainable sources, giving preference to timber and wood products from responsibly managed forests.
  • Where offices are renovated, prioritize, green options (movement-sensitive lights, low-flush toilets, heating etc) where possible. Maximize energy efficiency, using the best and most cost-effective techniques,. Explore renewable energy sources.
  • Review the office's carbon footprint by evaluating on a regular basis the cost of paper-usage, electricity, water etc in the office.
  • Maintain a consistent pharmaceutical disposal strategy
  • Barbecue safety
  • Backyard safety
  • Manage shortages, excessive consumption, waste through conservation, reuse, and recycling
  • Protection of the natural and constructed environments development and exposure to hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials by reducing or eliminating contamination, removal of wastes both biodegradable and non biodegradable
  • Incineration of solids b burning with filtration and scrubbers
  • Physical hazards,
  • Natural disasters
  • Technological disasters

4. Energy production

  • Electricity: coal, solar, wind, nuclear ...
  • Heat: natural gas, geothermal, wood, coal, electricity
  • Technology
  • Nanotechnology to improve electronics, manufacturing, clean energy, disease prevention, detection, treatment; and environmental assessment.

Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment

  • Climate change
  • Conserve electricity. Turn off lights, use low wattage bulbs, LED, wash in cold or warm water, temperature in buildings 68 in winter 78 summer, insulate
  • Healthy energy exchange to maintain a balanced ecosystem (plants, animals, decomposers)
  • Noise and electromagnetic fields
  • UV rays, ionizing radiation, other radiation
  • Energy use
  • Electric power plants: use of nonrenewable resources, heat exchange, water use and waste, solid waste, gases production (CO2, Sulfur, Mercury, ...)
  • Nuclear power plants: radioactive materials, heat,
  • Sound: hearing loss, insomnia,
  • Skin cancer, sunburn
  • Lead and other chemicals in gasoline vapor and exhaust
  • Particulate matter from gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment

5. Human health

  • Diet and nutritional needs.
  • Reduce traffic accidents: Traffic calming strategies light, road maintenance, one-way streets, speed limits, road narrowing, barriers, pedestrian crossing, bike lanes, traffic signs, traffic laws, cell phone use,
  • Reduce accidents in the home: Hand rails low grade slopes, lighting, window guards, friction surfaces,
  • Reduce infant and child mortality.
  • Make sure schools are located away from major highways.
  • Eliminate extreme poverty and hunger, primary education, gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat malaria and other diseases, environmental sustainability, shared global responsibility.
  • Environmental temperature increase negatively affects the health of humans by increases in production of plants, insects, pollen, ticks, infectious disease, malaria, mold, mosquitoes, lice, changes in patterns of infectious disease, increase in sea level, reduction of air quality, increase in the severity of natural disasters like floods, droughts, and severe storms associated with climate change.
  • Reduce inside allergens: mold, pollen, animals, dust mites, dog, cat, cockroach, mouse,
  • Accidents, road traffic, highway, train, air crashes. falling: slippery surface, , drowning, work related accidents, asbestos, radon gas, fire, earthquake, head trauma, Radiation from nuclear medicine, consumer products, military and industrial applications and nuclear waste management
  • Birth defects, spina bifida or Down’s syndrome
  • Cancers, Parkinson disease
  • Stress
  • Long working hours, lack of exercise, muscular skeletal and joint disease,
  • Depression
  • Heart disease
  • Fire and smoke, candles, smoke alarms
  • Electrocution, electric shock, electrical fires
  • Cooking stoves that use kerosene and solid fuel (wood, other plant materials, and animal waste) cause 4 million people to die each year from inhaling smoke from these stoves. Ethanol burning stoves are healthier than these. Source

Suggestions for consideration to maintain a healthy environment

  • Negative impacts pathogens, nematodes, diarrhea (transmitted through water, poor sanitation and hygiene, or food resulting in more than 1.5 million deaths a year, mainly children), intestinal flu, malnutrition, hunger, malnutrition, malaria, lyme disease, feedlot run off, hook worm, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis caused by worms in the lymphatic system whose larvae are transmitted mosquitoes, dengue, encephalitis, HIV/AIDS, STD’s, hepatitis B & C, tuberculosis, low birth weight, cancers, animal attacks: venom, bites, scratches, ... ; fish and shell fish consumption
  • Sanitation: washing hands, food safety
  • Negative impacts
  • Guns
  • Suicide, ingest chemicals, drown, hang, shoot,
  • Crime

6. Social: Education, Government policies, laws, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), Economic, Entertainment

  • Education
  • Media
  • Corporations
  • Laws
  • EPA policies, rules, budget

Historical Decisions & their affects on environment health - Fact sheet -

How do we make decisions that result in healthy environments?

Some people look at modern disasters and suggest technology is the problem. If that is true, what should we get rid of or limit? What modern conveniences: medicine, food production, shelter with climate control, education, entertainment, transportation, or other?

If we think it might be a good idea to turn back the clock on technology, or accept a previous era of technology we might consider what happened on Easter Island.

Easter Island had no human inhabitants until around 1000 years ago when people beached their boats on the 66 square mile island that had palm trees and grasslands. People were able to fish and farm and their numbers increased into the thousands. However, in 1722 when Europeans arrived there were less than a thousand. What caused the human population to decline along with the extinction of several species of birds and sea mammals? The decline is a mystery. Was it years of drought, slash and burn farming, increased population demands, rats, or combinations of these or other factors? Read the article - What Happened On Easter Island — A New (Even Scarier) Scenario. by Robert Krulwich; NPR; December 10, 2013, for more information about this mystery.

It seems a limited use of technology can cause unhealthy environments just as a lot of technology use can cause disastrous situations.

So can we learn to use technology in a way that supports a health environment?

To investigate this question, consider innovations and decisions and their impact on environmental health.

Some significant innovations. Fire, domestication of animals, agriculture, wheel, money, metal/nail/steel, printing press, lens, compass, gun powder, vaccination, steam engine, light bulb, telegraph, combustion engine, electricity, antibiotics, airplane, rocket, nuclear fission, birth control, computer, Internet.

Some decisions related to innovation.

  • Lens, telescope, ... Decision to investigate space. Understood the Earth as round with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Helped understand the causes of seasons to make better weather and astronomical predictions.
  • Lens, sanitation, microscopic, vaccination, ... Decision to develop procedures for better sanitation, develop food preservation processes (pasteurization, canning), use a germ theory for medicine, develop and test vaccines and antibiotics.
  • Steam engine. Decision to use steam engines in place of people and animals for work. Luddites (English workers) who destroyed textile machines and steam engines because they believed the machines and engines threatened their jobs. Proclaiming cloth should be made in a more natural way with human hand labor.
  • Electricity, steam engine, fire, generator, coal, oil, nuclear fission, Decision to build power plants to generate and deliver electrical power.
  • Decision to shun modern technology such as electricity, telephones ... and live without modern technology. Amish and other groups
  • Decision to remove human involvement in certain environments. Theodore Roosevelt created the National Park system.
  • Nuclear fission. Decision to develop nuclear weapons to use in war F.D. Roosevelt. Harry Truman okayed the use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Chemistry, Decision to use of DDT killed insects and didn't seem to harm humans and other animals in the short term, however, its storage in organisms adds up and harms organisms up a food chain. First time ideas of long term effects becomes understood and accepted by many people.
  • Decision to continue as usual and assume there is one cause for bee decline. Bees
  • Decision to continue to develop and use robotic devices with little consideration of ... Driver less cars. Advantages & disadvantages
  • Decision to continue to develop and use artificial intelligence with little consideration of ... and advantages & disadvantages ...

To determine positive and negative effects on environmental health is not always possible. However, we can and must consider possible effects and consequences based on evidence and reasoning to try to make and implement good decisions. At times this may be frustrating as evidence can be limited and even when it isn't, collecting it requires time and effort.

Particulate matter - Fact sheet -

Particulate matter is small pieces of solid or liquid or a combination of both kinds of matter small enough to travel in the air and therefore, can be inhaled by people. Particle size ranges from 0.005 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer (1 micrometer (µm) is one millionth of a meter).

Particulate matter is the greatest health threat because it travels deep into the lungs and embeds in the lung tissue. Particles small enough to not only penetrate the lung alveoli, but penetrate blood vessels. Where they enter the bloodstream and can travel to other body systems and organs: such as the cardiovascular system, liver, and kidneys, and affect them.

Numerous studies have linked elevated particle levels in the air to increased hospital admissions, emergency room visits, asthma attacks and premature death for those with respiratory problems. Children are more susceptible than healthy adults because their lungs and respiratory systems are developing and may thus increases the frequency of childhood illnesses and reduced lung function.

Human hair compared to size of dust

Additional information: Here’s how air pollution kills 3,450,000 people a year by Sara Chodosh and Kendra Pierre-Louis. Popular Science, March 30, 2017

Gasoline, Diesel, E10 - Fact sheet -

Gasoline

Gasoline vapor and exhaust contributes to air pollution and can affect health negatively both as a vapor and after combustion, as exhaust. Gasoline contains more than 150 chemicals, the exact content depends on: geography, season, octane rating, crude oil source, and production method. Benzene, lead, and sulfur are recognized among some of the most harmful chemicals.

Gasoline vapor and engine exhaust can be inhaled, absorbed through skin, and ingested as particulate matter. All harmful depending on the amount of exposure.

People usually have minimal vapor exposure when fueling vehicles at gas stations.

Effects of exposure to higher vapor concentration and exhaust depend on the kind of gasoline burned, the kind of engine, exhaust system, operating conditions, and other factors. Exposure occurs when working near running engines, exhaust in traffic, mowing grass, and walking or waiting along busy streets. Vapors and high level of particulate matter have toxic chemicals that are linked to respiratory illness and irritated lungs, cardiovascular symptoms, harmful neurological effects (dizziness and headaches), and serious effects such as coma and respiratory arrest.

Diesel

Diesel fuel combustion contributes to significant air pollution and can affect health negatively.

Diesel engine emissions vary greatly depending on: type of fuel (composed of hundreds of chemicals), type of engine (locomotives, marine vessels, heavy-duty equipment, trucks...), age and condition of the engine, and how it is operated.

Diesel exhaust includes gaseous compounds and 100 times more particulate matter than gasoline engine exhaust. These exhaust particles have a carbon core which can absorb organic compounds, nitrates, sulfates, oxides, metals and other trace elements. Creating compounds such as: nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and more.

Short-term exposure to diesel exhaust can have immediate health effects: severely irritate the eyes, nose and throat, produce bronchial and respiratory problems, and cause coughs, headaches, light-headedness and nausea.

Chronic and long-term exposure to diesel exhaust can increase or worsen allergic reactions, cause inflammation in the lungs, aggravate chronic respiratory symptoms and increase the frequency or intensity of asthma attacks.

People with emphysema, asthma and chronic heart or lung disease are especially sensitive to particle pollutants in diesel exhaust.

E10

The comparison of health risks between E10 fuel and conventional gasoline found no substantial differences in the predicted health effects for the compounds tested.

Source

Circles of Influence - fact sheet -

 

Circles of Influence

Review

Matching

______ 1. changes each organism undergoes from birth to death, including reproduction to sustain the species.

______ 2. the air that surrounds the earth.

______ 3. a place designed to safely bury waste or garbage.

______ 4. a soft metal element that damages organisms when it is in water and air.

______ 5. matter that can be decomposed into natural materials by living organisms.

______ 6. an organism that gets its food by feeding on plants and animals.

______ 7. place where organisms or populations live.

______ 8. a steady increase in average yearly temperature despite periodical decreases.

______ 9. when organic substances in waste material are burned.

______ 10. heat increases the Earth's temperature because the atmosphere slows the transfer of heat into space.

Word bank

  1. atmosphere
  2. biodegradable
  3. consumer
  4. greenhouse effect
  5. global warming
  6. habitat
  7. incinerate
  8. landfill
  9. life cycle
  10. lead

Matching

______ 1. Water evaporates, condenses, rains, evaporates, ...

______ 2. A molecule with three oxygen atoms that protect Earth from ultraviolet light.

______ 3. Everything on Earth: plants, animals, earth, and all other features.

______ 4. Water from rain and snow that flows across the ground.

______ 5. Soil and other material that flow through the watershed.

______ 6. Multicellular organisms that produce their own food with photosynthesis.

______ 7. Small solid or liquid matter that travel in the air and can be inhaled by people.

______ 8. Sound that annoys, distracts, or harms people.

______ 9. A colorless, odorless, radioactive gas created by the decay of radium.

______ 10. any discarded insoluble waste material: garbage, refuse, sludge, sewage, construction, manufacturing, commercial activity, ...

Word bank

  1. nature
  2. noise pollution
  3. particulate matter (PM)
  4. ozone
  5. plants
  6. radon (Rn)
  7. runoff
  8. solid waste
  9. sediment
  10. water cycle

Circle the statement in each pair that is more healthy for the environment.

  • There are plenty of resources on Earth.
  • All resources are either not renewable or renewable in limited ways.
  • Production is circular: food, waste, decompose, food, ...
  • Production is linear: harvest or find, make or produce, waste, harvest ...
  • Technology will solve our problems.
  • Technological changes have consequences for nature.
  • Diversity protects natural environments.
  • Monocultures make environments more efficient and increase profits.

Short answer and Essay

  1. Identify six environmental factors.




  2. Explain one cycle and how it is important for a healthy environment.





  3. Describe one environmental disaster that you didn't know about before this unit.




  4. Describe a historical decision and its positive and negative effects on humans and environmental health.




  5. Describe an environmental choice decision another group reported and why you believe it should be implemented.
    Problem or opportunity


    Information, Analysis, & Options


    Consequences, Solutions


    Implementation




    Rational for implementation



  6. What idea presented by another group would you think would be good to advocate for?



Short answers questions ( ideas included in class presentations ... )

  1. What are the top two causes of of lung cancer?



  2. What is the safest cooking use of hot water from the tap?



  3. Where is the best place to install a smoke and carbon monoxide detector?



  4. If you find visible signs of mold in your home, what should you do?




  5. What's the first sign that music or other electronic noise is too loud?




Review (answer key)

Matching

___I__ 1. changes each organism undergoes from birth to death, including reproduction to sustain the species.

___A__ 2. the air that surrounds the earth.

___H__ 3. a place designed to safely bury waste or garbage.

___J__ 4. a soft metal element that damages organisms when it is in water and air.

___B__ 5. matter that can be decomposed into natural materials by living organisms.

___C__ 6. an organism that gets its food by feeding on plants and animals.

___F__ 7. place where organisms or populations live.

___E__ 8. a steady increase in average yearly temperature despite periodical decreases.

___G__ 9. when organic substances in waste material are burned.

___D__ 10. heat increases the Earth's temperature because the atmosphere slows the transfer of heat into space.

Word bank

  1. atmosphere
  2. biodegradable
  3. consumer
  4. greenhouse effect
  5. global warming
  6. habitat
  7. incinerate
  8. landfill
  9. life cycle
  10. lead

Matching

___J__ 1. Water evaporates, condenses, rains, evaporates, ...

___D__ 2. A molecule with three oxygen atoms that protect Earth from ultraviolet light.

___A__ 3. Everything on Earth: plants, animals, earth, and all other features.

___G__ 4. Water from rain and snow that flows across the ground.

___I__ 5. Soil and other material that flow through the watershed.

___E__ 6. Multicellular organisms that produce their own food with photosynthesis.

___C__ 7. Small solid or liquid matter that travel in the air and can be inhaled by people.

___B__ 8. Sound that annoys, distracts, or harms people.

___F__ 9. A colorless, odorless, radioactive gas created by the decay of radium.

___H__ 10. any discarded insoluble waste material: garbage, refuse, sludge, sewage, construction, manufacturing, commercial activity, ...

Word bank

  1. nature
  2. noise pollution
  3. particulate matter (PM)
  4. ozone
  5. plants
  6. radon (Rn)
  7. runoff
  8. solid waste
  9. sediment
  10. water cycle

Circle the statement in each pair that is more healthy for the environment.

  • There are plenty of resources on Earth.
  • All resources are either not renewable or renewable in limited ways.
  • Production is circular: food, waste, decompose, food, ...
  • Production is linear: harvest or find, make or produce, waste, harvest ...
  • Technology will solve our problems.
  • Technological changes have consequences for nature.
  • Diversity protects natural environments.
  • Monocultures make environments more efficient and increase profits.

Short answer and Essay

  1. Identify six environmental factors.
    See nature model



  2. Explain one cycle and how it is important for a healthy environment.
    See environmental model




  3. Describe one environmental disaster that you didn't know about before this unit.
    See environmental disaster list


  4. Describe a historical decision and its positive and negative effects on humans and environmental health.
    See historical decisions & their affects on environment health - Fact sheet - and personal notes.

  5. Describe an environmental choice decision another group reported and why you believe it should be implemented.
    Problem or opportunity


    Information, Analysis, & Options


    Consequences, Solutions


    Implementation



    Rational for implementation


  6. What idea presented by another group would you think would be good to advocate for?



Short answers questions ( ideas included in class presentations ... )

  1. What are the top two causes of of lung cancer?
    1. smoking, 2. radon gas, asbestos, air pollution

  2. What is the safest cooking use of hot water from the tap?
    While it may be tempting to use hot tap water to reduce heat up time for boiling water for cooking, hot beverages, or instant cereal. Don’t. Hot water increases leaching of pipes and materials into the water (lead), therefore, hot tap water should not be used with food.

  3. Where is the best place to install a smoke and carbon monoxide detector?
    Outside the main sleeping areas

  4. If you find visible signs of mold in your home, what should you do?
    Remove it with soap and water, find the source of the moisture that allowed it to grow, and fix it

  5. What's the first sign that music or other electronic noise is too loud?
    When you can't understand someone talking nearby.



References

Word bank

Acid rain is created when chemicals in the atmosphere interact with water to produce acids that mix with rain. Acid examples: Carbonic acid (H2CO3), Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), Nitric acid (HNO3). It is harmful to plants and animals.

Air pollution is harmful or poisonous materials in the atmosphere or the breathable air within a human habitat.

Air quality index (AQI) is a number between 0 - 50 used to communicate the current quality of air or forecast air quality. The index uses five variables (ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide) to establish a number such that a higher AQI number will increase adverse health effects on people in the affected area. Source

Asbestos is a naturally occurring soft Gray-white mineral that has been used as a fire retardant, building material, and insulation. Very small fibers (Particulate matter) can break of and be inhaled, which is know to cause lung cancer (mesothelioma) and other forms of lung damage.

Atmosphere is the air (gases) that surround the earth.

Balance of Nature is the belief that an ecosystem can be in a natural stable condition: equilibrium or homeostasis. For example a small change in one variable (rabbit population) will affect a related variable (coyote population). Related for example by the predator - prey relationship which will fluctuate back and forth keeping both populations relatively stable over time.

Bias 1: an unfair comparison of one thing, person, or group to another 2: a known or unknown tendency or preference for a particular idea, brand, result, or perspective that interferes with being impartial, unprejudiced, or objective when making a decision. 3: unfairly support one idea or side against another.

Ways bias can be used to influence decision making.

  • With limited options or omission. Selections that offer one point of view by omitting alternatives. Offering only positive consequences and not negative.
  • Placement Information given first or reported on the first page, or beginning of a television or radio newscasts.
  • Use of photos, word selection in captions, camera angles, color, choice of shots.
  • Use of names and titles. Mr. Mrs, Dr. ex-con, terrorist, freedom fighter, ...
  • Use of numbers and statistics to make something a disaster report A hundred injured in air crash rather than only minor injuries in air crash.
  • Selection of information source. A reporter, eyewitness, police, fire official, executive, elected or appointed government officials.
  • Word choice and tone. Use of positive or negative words or words with a particular connotation. Riots, demonstrations, sit-ins, ribbon cuttings, speeches, ceremonies, gathering.

Biodegradable matter able to be broken down into natural materials by microorganisms or other living organisms (decomposed).

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon products (oil, gas, coal, wood, ...) and by metabolism / respiration (plants and animal use of food for energy). The near Earth atmosphere has about 0.04 percent and is used in photosynthesis by plants to make food. See carbon dioxide - oxygen cycle below.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless gas created with incomplete burning of carbon fuels (natural gas, coal, wood, oil, gasoline, ethanol, ... ) and other chemical processes. It is deadly at high concentrations by preventing sufficient oxygen for body tissues to survive.

Carbon Dioxide - Oxygen Cycle is plants use of carbon dioxide with sunlight to make simple sugar (C6H12O6) for food and release oxygen as a waste gas. The process generally happens in leaves where sunlight is absorbed, oxygen enters, and carbon dioxide exits. See chart below and NASA Video: Following atmospheric carbon dioxide (1:35)

400,000 years of carbon dioxide levels

Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a federal agency in Atlanta, Georgia that tracks and investigates public health concerns and supports health through promotion, prevention and preparation activities to improve overall public health.

Chemical substance is any piece of matter. Source fact sheets of chemical substances and their known possible risks to human health and the environment.

Conservation is the wise use of human and natural resources through management, improvement, and protection of the environment by protecting diverse plants, animals, avoiding waste, recycle, reuse, ...

Consumer is an organism that gets its food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter. Unable to produce its own food like plants.

Culture is the total of a groups goods, tools, ideas, beliefs, values, ideas about time, and roles that people communicate, share, and teach to each other. See iceberg model of culture.

Decibel (dB) is a measure of sound intensity. No sound or silence is 0 dB. A sound 10 times more powerful is 10 dB, one 100 times more powerful is 20 dB, and one 1,000 times more powerful is 30 dB. Sounds and their decibel ratings: whisper - 15 dB, conversation - 60 dB, lawnmower - 90 dB, car horn - 110 dB, rock concert - 120 dB, jet engine at take off - 160 dB.

Decomposers are organisms whose ecological who feed on dead or decaying organism, which recycle nutrients.

Earth the planet on which we live, the third planet from our Sun.

earth is the substance that covers the Earth: rocks, soil, sand, clay, ...

Environmental contaminants are substances accidentally or deliberately introduced into the environment that may harm organisms people, other animals, plants, and other organisms.

Emotions are signals that effect how you feel and can consciously an unconsciously cause body reactions and behaviors.

Empathy is the ability to imagine and understand how someone else feels.

Energy cycle is a process that sustains life on Earth. Plants combine sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water through photosynthesis to make sugar (C6H12O6) to use for energy to live. Plant consumers (herbivores) consume plants for their energy, animals (omnivores & carnivores) consume plants and animals for their energy and decomposers decompose living things for their energy and their waste recycles as environmental factors.

Gravity holds everything on Earth and enables air in the atmosphere, water in the atmosphere and surface, soil, and organisms to exchange chemicals through various cycles.

Greenhouse effect in an actual greenhouse is caused when sun light shines through the glass and warms everything inside the greenhouse. The heat increases as the glass slows the heats escape. With the greenhouse effect outside the Earth's atmosphere acts as the glass. During the day, the Sun shines through the atmosphere and warms the Earth's surface. At night, Earth's surface cools and heat flows into the atmosphere and out towards space. However, as it does it can interact with particles in the atmosphere (carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, water droplets, and particulate matter) that act like glass and slow the flow of heat into space. Eunice Foote, demonstrated the greenhouse effect and described her results in the 1856 issue of Scientific American. titled Scientific Ladies. 9, 1856.
See also: This Lady Scientist Defined the Greenhouse Effect But Didn’t Get the Credit, Because Sexism.

Global warming is the steady increase in average yearly temperature despite periodical temporary decreases. See NASA Video: Global warming from 1880 to 2016 (.20).

Habitats are the places organisms or populations live.

Hazardous waste incineration. Is a process to reduce the danger of hazardous waste with heat. Process: Waste is tested to determine what it is to determine how to process it. Then it enters a rotary kiln and is incinerated (burned) at about 1,000 °C (1832° Fahrenheit). Next, it moves to another chamber to insure a more complete burn. Separation begins with removing waste ash and noncombustible solids. Then gases and particulate matter are processed by spray drying (removes particulate matter, salts, and some metals) and wet scrubbing (removes sulfur dioxide, acids, and halogen). Followed by active carbon treatment (dioxins, furans, and mercury), and catalytic reduction (nitrogen oxides). The process reduces the amount of waste, however, the toxic materials become concentrated and need to be safely disposed.

Incineration is a process to treat organic substances in waste material by burning it which results in ash, particulate matter, gas, and additional heat. Organic ash can be safely disposed. However, toxins within the ash can not. See, hazardous waste incineration above.

Influence the power of people, objects, and ideas to effect their behaviors and choices they make that determine their health, character, development, and all other aspects of their lives and others lives.

Landfill a place designed to safely bury waste or garbage and cover it with soil.

Lead is a soft metal element (Pb). It can damage the liver, kidney, brain, nerves, cause cardiovascular disease and anemia. It can enter the body in the air as particulate matter, in drinking water, or ingested by eating paint chips.

Life cycle is the process of change each organism undergoes from life to death including most importantly reproduction to sustain the species.

Manipulate is a dishonest unfair way to influence or control other people. The following are ways to manipulate

  • Threaten is an action that indicates violence, injury, or punishment will result in retaliation if a specific action is or isn't completed.
  • Blackmail is an action that indicates violence or a payment will result as a consequence if a specific action is or isn't completed.
  • Reward is the act of allowing a favorable action or giving a favorable object as consequence if a specific action is or isn't completed.
  • Coerce is the act of with holding a favorable action or favorable object or using a threat or harm if a specific action is or isn't completed.
  • Mock or tease is the act of physical and verbal actions used to influence a person until a specific action is or isn't done.
  • Guilt trip is the act of physical and verbal blame used to influence a person to perform or not to perform a specific action.
  • Bargain is the act of negotiating with a person to influence them to perform or refrain from performing a specific action.
  • Flatter is the act of saying positive things to a person to influence them to perform or refrain from performing a specific action.
  • Bribe is the act of promising money or a favorable act if a person performs or refrains from performing a specific task.

Media is all the different ways together of mass communication: Internet, web sites, television, radio, newspapers, magazines, books, ...

Medicine is a substance or preparation used to treat or prevent disease or other unhealthy or uncomfortable conditions.

Nature is everything on Earth: plants, animals, earth, and all the features and forces of the Earth. Everything that is not created by humans. Mother Earth, Mother Nature, ...

Nitrogen cycle is the continuous process where nitrogen, in different chemical forms, passes from the atmosphere, to organisms, soil, and water back to the air to sustain life on Earth. Exchange happens with rain, decomposition, bacteria and plant metabolism, fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification.

Noise pollution sound considered to annoy, distract or harm other people. Automobiles, lawn mowers, power tools, airports, industrial plants, parties, ...

Ozone modelOzone is three oxygen atoms (O3) formed at ground level from oxygen and other molecules (one example - NO2) and ultraviolet light. It is part of smog, is bluish color, with a strong sharp odor.

Particulate matter (PM) is any small solid or liquid or a combination of both kinds of matter that are small enough to travel in the air and inhaled by people. See Particulate matter

Peer pressure the positive and negative influence same age people have on each other.

Personal needs - necessities, food, water, air, safe environment, social needs, physiological dependence, psychological dependence,

Plants are multicellular organisms that produce their own food with photosynthesis.

Radioactive waste is produced from radiation treatment and nuclear medicine, nuclear weapons manufacturing, and nuclear power plants. It is a gas, solid and liquid depending on the source. Radioactivity material can last a few hours to hundreds of thousands of years. If not disposed properly it can devastate the environment, ruining air, water and soil quality and have long term negative health effects on humans and other living organisms including death.

Radon (Rn) is an element in the noble gas group. It is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas created by the radioactive decay of radium. Minute amounts are in soil, rocks, and the air near the ground. It is used in radiation treatment of cancer and other diseases. It is the second leading cause of lung cancer.

Runoff is water, from rain or snow, that flows across the ground. It can be pure or contaminated by what it flows over: soil, rock, salt, waste, fertilizer, pesticide, insecticide, ...

Sediment is the soil and other materials that flow through the watershed and are deposited in rivers, lakes, and oceans.

Solid waste is any discarded insoluble (not able to be dissolved) waste material: garbage, refuse, sludge (semi-liquid waste from treatment plants: sewage, water supply, air pollution filtration or scrubbers, ...), construction, manufacturing, commercial activity, mining, smelting, agricultural operations, and community activities.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Is formed from volcanoes, burning coal, gasoline, and other petroleum products. It has a foul acrid smell and is harmful to the respiratory system. It also interacts with water to make acid rain which is harmful to plants and animals.

Water cycle (hydrologic cycle) is the flow of water in the atmosphere, streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, plants, animals, and even in you evaporate/transpire/sublimate into water vapor. Water vapor condenses into tiny droplets that form clouds and then form rain, sleet, hail, or snow (precipitation) and fall to earth.

 

Additional resources

Pedagogy resources

Video

 

Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes
homeofbob.com & schoolofbob.com